Main Article Content
growth factors, inflammatory markers, bone metabolic markers
The aim of this study was to determine how resistance training and detraining later affected the growth factors, inflammatory markers, and bone metabolism markers in healthy male college students.
Material and methods
Twenty-two young adults participated in 12 weeks weight training (WT) program. Exercise intensity for WT group included the following: step1, 70% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM); step 2, 80% of 1RM; and step3, 90% of 1RM. After 12 weeks, were classified to the 6 weeks CT(continued training group) and 6 weeks DT(detraining group). In the body composition test, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), %fat, and lean body mass (LBM) were measured by electric impedance. Blood collection was carried out before, after 6 weeks, after 12 weeks, and after 18 weeks of training. In blood analysis, growth factors (GH, IGF-1, and testosterone), inflammatory markers [IL-6, tumor necrosis factor- a (TNF- a ), and c-reactive protein (CRP)], and bone metabolism markers [osteocalcin (OC) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)] were analyzed.
Results showed that IGF-1 level was significantly decreased after 12 weeks of training compared to that prior to training. Testosterone level was also significantly decreased after 6 weeks and 12 weeks of training. Levels of IL-6, TNF- a, and CRP showed no significant differences by training period. Both OC and ALP levels significantly increased after 6 weeks and 12 weeks of training compared to those prior to training. Detraining period IGF-1 level after 18 weeks was higher than that after 12 weeks in the CT group. IL-6 level after 18 weeks was lower compared to that at 12 weeks in the CT group. TNF- a level after 18 weeks was lower compared to that after 12 weeks in both groups. ALP level after 18 weeks was significantly higher compared to that after 12 weeks in the CT group.
Resistance training induced bone metabolic markers (OC and ALP) after 12 weeks. In addition, training period of more than 18 weeks is needed to reduce inflammatory markers (IL-6 and TNF- a ). Six weeks of detraining does not affect metabolic markers in healthy young adults.
2. Phillips SM, Hartman JW, Wilkinson SB. Dietary protein to support anabolism with resistance exercise in young men. J Am Col Nutr. 2005;24:134S–139S. https://doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2005.10719454
3. Kraemer WJ, Ratamess NA. Hormonal responses and adaptations to resistance exercise and training. Sports Med. 2005;35:339–361. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200535040-00004
4. Ahtiainen JP, Pakarinen A, Alen M, et al. Muscle hypertrophy hormonal adaptations and strength development during strength training in strength-trained and untrained men. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2003;89:555–563. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-003-0833-3
5. Ryan AS, Nicklas BJ. Reductions in plasma cytokine levels with weight loss improve insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese postmenopausal women. Diabetes Care. 2004;27:1699–1705. https://doi.org/10.2337/diacare.27.7.1699
6. Stewart KJ, Bacher AC, Hees PS, et al. Exercise effects on bone mineral density: Relationships to changes in fitness and fatness. Am J Prev Med. 2005;28:453–460. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2005.02.003
7. Akesson K, Vergnaud P, Delmas PD. Serum osteocalcin increases during fracture healing in elderly women with hip fracture. Bone. 1995;16:427–430. https://doi.org/10.1016/8756-3282(95)90187-6
8. Schoenau E, Rauch F. Biochemical measurements of bone metabolism in childhood and adolescence. J Lab Med. 2003;27:32–42. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-0477.2003.02046.x
9. Creighton DL, Morgan AL, Boardley D, et al. Weight-bearing exercise and markers of one turnover in female athletes. J Appl Physiol. 2001;90:565–570. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.2001.90.2.565
10. Snow-Harter CM. Bone health and prevention of osteoporosis in active and athletic women. Clin Sports Med. 1994;13:389–404.
11. Lim JS, Jang GC, Moon KR, et al. Combined aerobic and resistance exercise is effective for achieving weight loss and reducing cardiovascular risk factors without deteriorating bone health in obese young adults. Ann Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2013;18:26–31. https://doi.org/10.6065/apem.2013.18.1.26
12. Humphries B, Newton RU, Bronks R, et al. Effect of exercise intensity on bone density, strength, and calcium turnover in older women. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000;32:1043–1050. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200006000-00002
13. Huuskonen J, Väisänen S, Kröger H, et al. Regular physical exercise and bone mineral density: A four-year controlled randomized trial in middle-aged men. The DNASCO study. Osteoporos Int. 2001;12:349–355. https://doi.org/10.1007/s001980170101
14. Rector RS, Loethen J, Ruebel M, et al. Serum markers of bone turnover are increased by modest weight loss with or without weight-bearing exercise in overweight premenopausal women. App Physiol Nutr Metab. 2009;34:933–941. https://doi.org/10.1139/H09-098
15. Lester ME, Urso ML, Evans RK, et al. Influence of exercise mode and osteogenic index on bone biomarker responses during short-term physical training. Bone. 2009;45:768–776. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2009.06.001
16. Simpson RJ, Lowder TW, Spielmann G, et al. Exercise and the aging immune system. Ageing Res Rev. 2012;11:404–420. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arr.2012.03.003
17. Forti LN, Van Roie E, Njemini R, et al. Effects of resistance training at different loads on inflammatory markers in young adults. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2017;117:511–519. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-017-3548-6
18. Ho SS, Dhaliwal SS, Hills P, et al. Effects of chronic exercise training on inflammatory markers in Australian overweight and obese individuals in a randomized controlled trial. Inflammation. 2013;36:625–632. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10753-012-9584-9
19. Fonseca JE, Santos MJ, Canhao H, et al. Interleukin-6 as a player in systemic inflammation and joint destruction. Autoimmun Rev. 2009;8:538–542. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autrev.2009.01.012
20. Ridker PM. Clinical application of C-reactive protein for cardiovascular disease detection and prevention. Circulation. 2003;107:363–369. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.0000053730.47739.3C
21. Mujika I, Padilla S. Detraining: Loss of training-induced physiological and performance adaptations. Part I. Sports Med. 2000;30:79–87. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200030020-00002
22. Fatouros IG, Kambas A, Katrabasas I, et al. Strength training and detraining effects on muscular strength, anaerobic power, and mobility of inactive older men are intensity dependent. Br J Sports Med. 2005;39:776–780. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2005.019117
23. Ivey FM, Tracy BL, Lemmer JT, et al. Effects of strength training and detraining on muscle quality: Age and gender comparisons. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2000;55: B152–B157. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/55.3.B152
24. Sforzo GA, McMains BG, Black D, et al. Resilience to exercise detraining in healthy older people. J Am Geritar Soc. 1995;43:209–215. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.1995.tb07324.x
25. Lemmer JT, Hurlbut DE, Martel GF, et al. Age and gender responses to strength training and detraining. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000;32e:1505–1512. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200008000-00021
26. Bachile TR, Earle RW. Essentials of strength training and conditioning. 2nd ed. IL: Human Kinetics. Champaign. 2000.
27. Andon MB, Smith KT, Bracker M, et al. Spinal bone density and calcium intake in healthy postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;54:927–929. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/54.5.927
28. Lehtonen-Veromaa M, Möttönen T, Irjala K, et al. A 1-year prospective study on the relationship between physical activity, markers of bone metabolism, and bone acquisition in peripubertal girls. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol. 2000;85:3726–32. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.85.10.3726
29. Hinton PS, Rector RS, Thomas TR. Weight-bearing, aerobic exercise increases markers of bone formation during short-term weight lossin overweight and obese men and women. Metabolism. 2006;55:1616–1618. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2006.07.023
30. Alghadir AH, Aly FA, Gabr SA. Effect of moderate aerobic training on bone metabolism indices among adult humans. Pak J Med Sci. 2014;30:840–844. https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.304.4624
31. Franck H, Beuker F, Gurk S. The effect of physical activity on bone turnover in young adults. Exp Clin Endocrinol. 1991;98:42–46. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0029-1211099
32. Shah PK. Circulating markers of inflammation for vascular risk prediction: Are they ready for prime time. Circulation. 2000;101:1758–1759. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.101.15.1758
33. Sesso HD, Wang L, Buring JE, et al. Comparison of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein for the risk of developing hypertension in women. Hypertension. 2007;49:304–310. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.HYP.0000252664.24294.ff
34. Mosadeghi M, Nourizadeh N. The effects of the continuous and intermittent resistance training on IL-6 and CRP of young men of biology. IJBPAS. 2015;4:5749–5758.
35. Ryan AS, Ivey FM, Hurlbut DE, et al. Regional bone mineral density after resistive training in young and older men and women. Scan J Med Sci Sports. 2004;14:16–23. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2003.00328.x
36. Keller C, Steensberg A, Hansen AK, Fischer CP, Plomgaard P, Pedersen BK. Effect of exercise, training, and glycogen availability on IL-6 receptor expression in human skeletal muscle. J App Physiol. 2005;99:2075–2079. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00590.2005
37. Nicklas BJ, Ambrosius W, Messier SP, et al. Diet-induced weight loss, exercise, and chronic inflammation in older, obese adults: A randomized controlled clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79:544–551. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/79.4.544