Main Article Content
Keywords: Self-construal, Homophobia, Cross-Cultural, Homosexuality
Background and Objective
Internalized homophobia is common among gay men. Gay men who live in high-tolerance social envi-ronments tend to have less internalized homophobia than gay men who live in low-tolerance environ-ments. The interaction between the living environment and self-construal influences gay men’s internalized homophobia.
Material and Methods
This study examined the association between self-construal and homophobia according to the living environment using a sample of gay men (N=521) aged 14–43 years. The data were collected between January and August 2017 using an online questionnaire that included an internalized homophobia scale, self-construal items, and demographic characteristics. The two-way ANOVA analyses revealed that the self-construal type was differentially associated with internalized homophobia depending on the living environment of the study participants.
Living in a high-tolerance area while having an independent self-construal was associated with lower internalized homophobia scores than living in a low-tolerance area. In contrast, alternating between independent and dependent self-construals was associated with higher internalized homophobia scores.
Mental health services for participants with conflicted self-construals are emerging. Self-acceptance and compassion-focused practices should be explored as a way to help gay men adjust their conflicted self-construals.
2. Liu FF, Goto SG. Self-construal, mental distress, and family relations: a mediated moderation analysis with Asian American adolescents. Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol. 2007;13(2):134-142.
3. Hwang K-K. Foundations of Chinese psychology: Confucian social relations. Vol 1: Springer; 2011.
4. Yang K-S. Theories and research in Chinese personality: An indigenous approach. 1997.
5. Markus HR, Kitayama S. Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological review. 1991;98(2):224.
6. Lu L, Gilmour R. Culture and conceptions of happiness: Individual oriented and social oriented SWB. Journal of happiness studies. 2004;5(3):269-291.
7. Kim U, Yang K-S, Hwang K-K. Contributions to indigenous and cultural psychology. Indigenous and Cultural Psychology: Springer; 2006:3-25.
8. Ren Z, Hood Jr RW. Internalized Homophobia Scale for Gay Chinese Men: Conceptualization, Factor Structure, Reliability, and Associations With Hypothesized Correlates. American journal of men's health. 2018:1557988318768603.
9. Chan KK. Family and Homosexuality in Chinese Culture: Rights Claims by Non-heterosexuals in Hong Kong. Sexuality & Culture. 2017;21(3):845-859.
10. Ren Z, Howe CQ, Zhang W. Maintaining “mianzi” and “lizi”: Understanding the reasons for formality marriages between gay men and lesbians in China. Transcultural psychiatry. 2019;56(1):213-232.
11. Green MA, Scott NA, Devilder EL, Zeiger A, Darr S. Relational-Interdependent self-construal as a function of bulimic symptomatology. J Clin Psychol. 2006;62(7):943-951.
12. Fung HH, Isaacowitz DM, Lu AY, Li T. Interdependent self-construal moderates the age-related negativity reduction effect in memory and visual attention. Psychol Aging. 2010;25(2):321-329.
13. Cross SE, Gore JS, Morris ML. The relational-interdependent self-construal, self-concept consistency, and well-being. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2003;85(5):933-944.
14. Herek GM, Cogan JC, Gillis JR, Glunt EK. Correlates of internalized homophobia in a community sample of lesbians and gay men. Journal-Gay and Lesbian Medical Association. 1998;2:17-26.
15. Frederick DA, Kelly MC, Latner JD, Sandhu G, Tsong Y. Body image and face image in Asian American and white women: Examining associations with surveillance, construal of self, perfectionism, and sociocultural pressures. Body Image. 2016;16:113-125.
16. Balkir N, Arens EA, Wolff C, Barnow S. [The link between self-construal and mental distress in Turkish migrants and German women with depression]. Psychiatr Prax. 2013;40(3):135-141.
17. Ferenczi N, Marshall TC, Bejanyan K. The protective and detrimental effects of self-construal on perceived rejection from heritage culture members. Front Psychol. 2015;6:100.
18. Van Beusekom G, Bos HM, Kuyper L, Overbeek G, Sandfort TG. Gender nonconformity and mental health among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults: Homophobic stigmatization and internalized homophobia as mediators. J Health Psychol. 2016.
19. Herrick AL, Stall R, Chmiel JS, et al. It gets better: resolution of internalized homophobia over time and associations with positive health outcomes among MSM. AIDS Behav. 2013;17(4):1423-1430.
20. Fitzgerald R, Winstone L, Prestage Y. Searching for evidence of acculturation: Attitudes toward homosexuality among migrants moving from Eastern to Western Europe. International Journal of Public Opinion Research. 2014;26(3):323-341.
21. Bianchi FT, Reisen CA, Cecilia Zea M, Poppen PJ, Shedlin MG, Penha MM. The sexual experiences of Latino men who have sex with men who migrated to a gay epicentre in the USA. Culture, Health & Sexuality. 2007;9(5):505-518.
22. George C, Adam BA, Read SE, et al. The MaBwana Black men's study: community and belonging in the lives of African, Caribbean and other Black gay men in Toronto. Cult Health Sex. 2012;14(5):549-562.
23. Murray DA. The Challenge of Home for Sexual Orientation and Gendered Identity Refugees in Toronto. Journal of Canadian Studies. 2014;48(1):132-152.
24. Ren Z, Howe CQ, Zhang W. Maintaining “mianzi” and “lizi”: Understanding the reasons for formality marriages between gay men and lesbians in China. Transcultural psychiatry. 2018:1363461518799517.
25. Barnett MD, Oz HCM, Marsden AD, 3rd. Economic and Social Political Ideology and Homophobia: The Mediating Role of Binding and Individualizing Moral Foundations. Arch Sex Behav. 2017.
26. Buyantueva R. LGBT Rights Activism and Homophobia in Russia. J Homosex. 2017.
27. Hondagneu-Sotelo P. Gendered transitions: Mexican experiences of immigration. Univ of California Press; 1994.
28. Huang FY, Akhtar S. Immigrant sex: the transport of affection and sensuality across cultures. Am J Psychoanal. 2005;65(2):179-188.
29. Carrillo H. Sexual migration, cross-cultural sexual encounters, and sexual health. Sexuality Research and Social Policy. 2004;1(3):58-70.
30. Parker R, Herdt G. Migration, sexual subcultures, and HIV/AIDS in Brazil. Sexual culture and migration in the Era of AIDS: anthropological and demographic perspectives. 1997:55-69.
31. Luhtanen RK. Identity, stigma management, and well-being: A comparison of lesbians/bisexual women and gay/bisexual men. Journal of Lesbian Studies. 2002;7(1):85-100.
32. Elizur Y, Ziv M. Family support and acceptance, gay male identity formation, and psychological adjustment: A path model. Family process. 2001;40(2):125-144.
33. Terry ML, Leary MR. Self-compassion, self-regulation, and health. Self and Identity. 2011;10(3):352-362.