Main Article Content
agricultural and fishing population, elderly, osteoporosis, prevalence
This article is aimed to evaluate through quantification the prevalence and related aspects of osteopo-rosis among the aging people working in the fishing and agricultural areas in Taipei, Taiwan.
The population (n=4360) aged 65 years and above and who were admitted to a teaching hospital for a physical examination in 2010 were involved in this study. Osteoporosis is defined as bone min-eral density (BMD) of 2.5 standard deviation (SD) or more under the young adult mean value (−2.5 SD or inferior).
The population presented an over-occurrence of osteoporosis, scoring 34.4%, and exposed a statisti-cally important rise with cumulative age (P<0.001). Female population displayed a higher incidence than male population (48.1% vs. 26.4%; P<0.001). The age-specific frequency of osteoporosis in 65–74 years, 75–84 years, and ≥85 years was 27.7, 40.0, and 56.7%, respectively. The multinomial logis-tic regression showed that age (odds ratio [OR]=1.07, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06–1.09), body height (OR=0.98, 95% CI: 0.97–0.99), body weight (OR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.95–099), waist circumference (OR=1.02, 95% CI: 1.00–1.03), total cholesterol (OR=1.01, 95% CI: 1.00–1.02), uric acid (OR=0.90, 95% CI: 0.85–0.95), and regular habits of meat intake (OR=1.47, 95% CI:1.19–1.75) were statistically significantly associated with osteoporosis.
Numerous medical aspects were individualistically specified, relating the occurrence of osteoporosis in the elderly among the population involved in fishing and agriculture.
2. Pisani P, Renna MD, Conversano F, et al. Major osteoporotic fragility fractures: risk factor updates and societal impact. World J Orthop 2016;7: 171–81. https://doi.org/10.5312/wjo.v7.i3.171
3. Berry SD, McLean RR, Hannan MT, et al. Changes in bone mineral density (BMD) may pre-dict the risk of fracture differently in older adults according to fall history. J Am Geriatr Soc 2014;62:2345–9. https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.13127
4. Darbà J, Kaskens L, Pérez-Álvarez N, et al. Disability-adjusted-life-years losses in postmeno-pausal women with osteoporosis: a burden of illness study. BMC Public Health 2015;15:324. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-1684-7
5. Mettyas T, Carpenter C. Secondary prevention of osteoporosis in non-neck of femur fragility frac-tures: is it value for money? A retrospective, prospective and cross-sectional cohort study. J Orthop Surg Res 2013;8:44. https://doi.org/ 10.1186/1749-799X-8-44
6. Ferencz V, Horváth CS, Huszár S, et al. Evaluation of risk factors for fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Orv Hetil 2015;156: 146–53. https://doi.org/10.1556/OH.2015.30088
7. Finkenstedt G, Skrabal F, Gasser RW, et al. Lactose absorption, milk consumption, and fast-ing blood glucose concentrations in women with idiopathic osteoporosis. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1986;292:161–2. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.292. 6514.161
8. Ishii S, Miyao M, Mizuno Y, et al. Association between serum uric acid and lumbar spine bone mineral density in peri- and postmenopausal Japanese women. Osteoporos Int 2014;25:1099–105. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00198-013-2571-7
9. Nabipour I, Sambrook PN, Blyth FM, et al. Serum uric acid is associated with bone health in older men: a cross-sectional population-based study. J Bone Miner Res 2011;26:955–64. https:// doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.286
10. Waugh EJ, Lam MA, Hawker GA, et al. Risk factors for low bone mass in healthy 40–60 year old women: a systematic review of the literature. Osteoporos Int 2009;20:1–21. https://doi.org/ 10.1007/s00198-008-0643-x
11. Shin S, Joung H. A dairy and fruit dietary pattern is associated with a reduced likelihood of osteo-porosis in Korean postmenopausal women. Br J Nutr 2013;110:1926–33. https://doi.org/10.1017/ S0007114513001219
12. Baron JA, Farahmand BY, Weiderpass E, et al. Cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and risk of hip fracture in women. Arch Intern Med 2001;161:983–8. https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte. 161.7.983
13. Kanis JA, McCloskey EV, Johansson H, et al. European guidance for the diagnosis and man-agement of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int 2013;24:23–57. https:// doi.org/10.1007/s00198-012-2074-y
14. Jang SY, Kim IH, Ju EY, et al. Chronic kidney dis-ease and metabolic syndrome in a general Korean population: the Third Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES III) Study. J Public Health 2010;32:538–46. https://doi. org/10.1093/pubmed/fdp127
15. Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Daniels SE, et al. Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: an American Heart Association/ National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Scientific Statement. Circulation 2005;112:2735– 52. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA. 105.169404
16. Chan YH. Multinomial logistic regression. Singapore Med J 2005;46:259–69.
17. D'Amelio P, Spertino E, Martino F, et al. Prevalence of postmenopausal osteoporosis in Italy and validation of decision rules for referring women for bone densitometry. Calcif Tissue Int 2013;92:437–43. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00223-013-9699-5
18. Jeon YJ, Kim JW, Park JS. Factors associated with the treatment of osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal women. Women Health 2014;54: 48–60. https://doi.org/10.1080/03630242.2013. 862896
19. Lo SS. Bone health status of postmenopausal Chinese women. Hong Kong Med J 2015;21: 536–41. https://doi.org/10.12809/hkmj154527
20. Lim YS, Lee SW, Tserendejid Z, et al. Prevalence of osteoporosis according to nutrient and food group intake levels in Korean postmenopausal women: using the 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data. Nutr Res Pract 2015;9:539–46. https://doi.org/10.4162/ nrp.2015.9.5.539
21. Domingues VR, de Campos GC, Plapler PG, et al. Prevalence of osteoporosis in patients await-ing total hip arthroplasty. Acta Ortop Bras 2015;23:34–7. https://doi.org/10.1590/1413-7852 2015230100981
22. Riggs BL, Wahner HW, Dunn WL, et al. Differential changes in bone mineral density of the appendicular and axial skeleton with aging: relationship to spinal osteoporosis. J Clin Invest 1981;67:328–35. https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI 110039
23. Siminoski K, Jiang G, Adachi JD, et al. Accuracy of height loss during prospective monitoring for detection of incident vertebral fractures. Osteoporos Int 2005;16:403–10. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s00198-004-1709-z
24. Siminoski K, Warshawski RS, Jen H, et al. The accuracy of historical height loss for the detection of vertebral fractures in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int 2006;17:290–6. https://doi.org/ 10.1007/s00198-005-2017-y
25. Bennani L, Allali F, Rostom S, et al. Relationship between historical height loss and vertebral frac-tures in postmenopausal women. Clin Rheumatol 2009;28:1283–9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10067-009-1236-6
26. Yeoum SG, Lee JH. Usefulness of estimated height loss for detection of osteoporosis in women. J Korean Acad Nurs 2011;41:758–67. https://doi. org/10.4040/jkan.2011.41.6.758
27. Krege JH, Kendler D, Krohn K, et al. Relationship between vertebral fracture burden, height loss, and pulmonary function in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. J Clin Densitom 2015;18:506–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jocd.2015.02.004
28. Joakimsen RM, Fønnebø V, Magnus JH, et al. The Tromsø Study: body height, body mass index and fractures. Osteoporos Int 1998;8:436–42. https://doi.org/10.1007/s001980050088
29. Meyer HE, Tverdal A, Falch JA. Body height, body mass index, and fatal hip fractures: 16 years' follow-up of 674,000 Norwegian women and men. Epidemiology 1995;6:299–305. https://doi. org/10.1097/00001648-199505000-00019
30. Briot K, Legrand E, Pouchain D, et al. Accuracy of patient-reported height loss and risk factors for height loss among postmenopausal women. CMAJ 2010;182:558–62. https://doi.org/10.1503/ cmaj.090710
31. Yamauchi M, Yamaguchi T, Nawata K, et al. Increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level is associated with non-vertebral fractures in post-menopausal women. Endocrine 2015;48:279–86. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12020-014-0292-0
32. Jeong TD, Lee W, Choi SE, et al. Relationship between serum total cholesterol level and serum biochemical bone turnover markers in healthy pre- and postmenopausal women. Biomed Res Int 2014;2014:398397. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/ 398397
33. Toth PP, Barylski M, Nikolic D, et al. Should low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) be treated? Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2014;28:353–68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beem. 2013.11.002
34. Pliatsika P, Antoniou A, Alexandrou A, et al. Serum lipid levels and bone mineral density in Greek postmenopausal women. Gynecol Endocrinol 2012;28:655–60. https://doi.org/10.3109/0951359 0.2011.650766
35. Li S, Guo H, Liu Y, et al. Relationships of serum lipid profiles and bone mineral density in post-menopausal Chinese women. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2015;82:53–8. https://doi.org/10.1111/cen.12616
36. Makovey J, Macara M, Chen JS, et al. Serum uric acid plays a protective role for bone loss in peri-and postmenopausal women: a longitudinal study. Bone 2013;52:400–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. bone.2012.10.025
37. Ganapathy V, Ramachandran I, Rubenstein DA, et al. Detection of in vivo DNA damage induced by very low doses of mainstream and sidestream smoke extracts using a novel assay. Am J Prev Med 2015;48(1 Suppl 1):S102–10. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.amepre.2014.08.017
38. Kunchithapautham K, Atkinson C, Rohrer B. Smoke exposure causes endoplasmic reticulum stress and lipid accumulation in retinal pigment epithelium through oxidative stress and comple-ment activation. J Biol Chem 2014;289:14534–46. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M114.564674
39. Gao SG, Li KH, Xu M, et al. Bone turnover in passive smoking female rat: relationships to change in bone mineral density. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2011;12:131. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2474-12-131
40. Tucker KL, Chen H, Hannan MT, et al. Bone min-eral density and dietary patterns in older adults: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;76:245–52. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/ 76.1.245
41. Pereira PM, Vicente AF. Meat nutritional compo-sition and nutritive role in the human diet. Meat Sci 2013;93:586–92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. meatsci.2012.09.018
42. Qing GZ, Lu Y, Yi T, et al. The relationship of frequency of meat consumption and osteoporosis in Chinese postmenopausal women. Int J Clin Exp Med 2015;8:21130–7.