Main Article Content
Background and Objective
This study verified the effect of short-term outdoor taekwondo training on the attention and mood state of taekwondo players.
Material and Methods
Eighteen taekwondo players were divided into an indoor taekwondo group (n=9) and an outdoor taekwondo group (n=9). Concentration, mood state, and subjective exercise intensity were measured initially and after the training intervention.
The results showed that first, taekwondo training in the natural environment was effective in improving the concentration of the players, rather than the indoor taekwondo training (F=4.736, p=0.045). Second, interaction effects were found for the mood states of anger and hostility (F=19.782, p<0.001), vigour (F=36.971,p<0.001), and fatigue (F=39.878, p<0.001). The outdoor taekwondo group showed positive changes as compared to the indoor taekwondo group. Third, although both groups underwent the same training, the group subjected to outdoor taekwondo training considered the training to be lower in intensity than the indoor taekwondo group (t=5.245, p<0.001).
The various physical stimuli that one experiences in a natural environment, such as plants, light, sound, and air, provide refreshing sensations that have a positive effect on the concentration and mood state of taekwondo players. We suggest that training in a natural environment can help improve taekwondo performance.
2. Pretty J, Peacock J, Sellens M, Griffen M. The mental and physical health outcomes of green exercise. Int J Environ Health Res 2005;15(5):319–37.
3. Pretty J, Peacock J, Hine R, et al. Effects on health and psychological well-being, and implication for policy and planning. J Environ Plann Manage 2007;50:211–31.
4. Schechtman KB, Ory MG. The effect of exercise on the quality of life of frail older adults: a preplanned meta-analysys of the FICSIT Trials. Nat Inst Age Behav Social Res 2001;23:186–97.
5. Mackay GJ, Neill JT. The effect of “green exercise” on state anxiety and the role of exercise duration, intensity, and greenness: Aquasi-experimental study. Psychol Sport Exerc 2010;11:238–45.
6. Kaplan R, Kaplan S. The experience of nature: A psychological perspective. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press; 1989.
7. Van den Berg AE, Koole SL, van der Wulp NY. Environmental preference and restoration: (How) are they related? J Environ Psychol 2003;23:135–46.
8. Jung SJ, Son MR, Lee HS, et al. Analysis of horticultural therapy with psychological & counseling techniques. Korean J Hortic Sci Technol 2012;30:199.
9. Kim SK, Lee JS, Kang MH, Chiang MH. Effect of psychological horticultural therapy program for promoting emotional intelligence of children. Korean J Hortic Sci Technol 2007;24:152.
10. Lee MS, Park BJ, Lee J, et al. Psychological and physiological relaxation produced by horticultural activity. Korean J Hortic Sci Technol 2011;29:55.
11. Pryor A, Carpenter C, Townsend M. Outdoor education and bush adventure therapy: A socio-eco-logical approach to health and wellbeing. Aust J Outdoor Ed 2005;9:3–13.
12. Shin WS, Shin CS, Yeoun PS, Kim JJ. The influence of interaction with forest on cognitive function. Scand J For Res 2011;26(6):595–8.
13. Tombaugh TN. Trail Making Test A and B: normative data stratified by age and education. Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2004;19(2):203–14.
14. Lezak MD. Neuropsychological Assessment (3rd. ed.). New York: Oxford; 1995.
15. McNair MD, Loor M, Droppleman LF. Profile of mood states. San Diego, CA: Educational and Industrial Testing Service; 1981.
16. Morgan WP, Brown DR, Raglin JS, et al. Psychological monitoring of overtraining and staleness. Br J Sports Med 1987;21:107–14.
17. Borg GA, Noble BJ. Perceived exertion. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 1974; 2:131–54.
18. Pfieffer KA, Pivarnik JM, Womack CJ, et al. Reliability and validity of the Borg and OMNI rating of perceived exertion scales in adolescent girls. Med Sci Sports Exer 2002;34(12):2057–61.
19. Jang SY, Kim SC. Analysis of psychological effects on green exercise: effects on attention and mood states. Korean J Phys Ed 2013;52:127–38.
20. Nakamura R, Fujii E. A comparative study on the characteristics of electroencephalogram inspecting a hedge and a concrete block fence. J Japan Inst Landscape Arch 1991;55(5):139–44.
21. Kandel ER, Schwarts JH, Jessell TM. Principles of neural science. (3rd ed.). Appleton & Lange; 1991.
22. Ulich RS. View through a window may influence recovery from surgery. Science 1984;224(4647):420–1.
23. Hartig T. Restorative environments. Encycloped Appl Psychol 2004;3:273–9.
24. Lee JS, Son KC, Kim YD, et al. Effect of indoor plants on alleviation of symptoms of the worker’s visual display terminal syndrome. Korean Soc Horticult Sci 2000;41;657–61.
25. Parsons R, Tassinary LG, Urich RS, et al. The view from the road: Implications for stress recovery and immunization. J Environ Psychol 1998;18:113–40.
26. Park BJ, Tsunetsugu Y, Kasetani T, et al. Physiological effects of Shinrin-yoku (taking in the atmosphere of the forest)-using salivary cortisol and cerebral activity as indicators. J Physiol Anthropol 2007;26:123–8.
27. Wood RA, Orwell RL, Tarran J, et al. Potted-plant/growth media interactions and capacities for removal of volatiles from indoor air. J Hortic Sci Biotechno 2002;77:120–9.
28. Li Q. Effect of forest bathing trips on human immune function. Environ Health Prev Med 2010;15:9–17.
29. Lehninger A, Nelson D, Cox M. Principles of Biochemistry. New York, NY: Worth Publishers; 1993.
30. Assimakopoulos VD, Helmis CG. On the study of a sick building: the case of Athens air traffic control tower. Energy Build 2004;36:15–22.
31. Jones AP. Indoor air quality and health. Atmospher Environ 1999; 33:4535–64.
32. Hines AL, Ghosh TK, Loyalka SK, Warder Jr RC. Indoor air, quality and control. PTR Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey; 1993