Main Article Content
semen, quality, young men
Background and Objective
Our aim was to evaluate whether the blood concentration of 25(OH)D3 is associated with semen quality and sperm morphology parameters in young men.
Material and methods
Healthy, urban volunteers aged 20-35 were recruited from universities, clubs and societies in the macroregion of Lower Silesia (Poland). We evaluated medical history, lifestyle factors and environmental threats, collected semen samples, and evaluated vitamin D levels. We acquired data for 177 subjects.
The mean concentration of 25(OH)D3was 13.7 Â± 8.9 ng/ml. Only a minority of the included subjects (18%) had a serum 25(OH)D3 concentration above the lower limit (20 ng/ml). In total, 39% had severe vitamin D deficiency (<10 ng/ml). None of the studied semen parameters was correlated with the serum concentration of 25(OH)D3; we also found no correlations after adjusting for alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, carrying a mobile phone in pant pockets, body mass index, caffeine consumption and physical activity.
Our data indicate that the serum concentration of 25(OH)D3 was not correlated with semen quality in a healthy, young urban population with prevalent vitamin D insufficiency.
2. Smarr MM, Sapra KJ, Gemmill A, Kahn LG, Wise LA, Lynch CD, et al. Is human fecundity changing? A discussion of research and data gaps precluding us from having an answer. Hum Reprod 2017 Mar 1;32(3):499–504. doi:10.1093/humrep/dew361.
3. Lerchbaum E, Obermayer-Pietsch B. Vitamin D and fertility: a systematic review. Eur J Endocrinol 2012;166(5):765–78.
4. Abbasihormozi S, Kouhkan A, Alizadeh AR, Shahverdi AH, Nasr-Esfahani MH, Sadighi Gilani MA, et al. Association of vitamin D status with semen quality and reproductive hormones in Iranian subfertile men. Andrology 2017;5(1):113–8.
5. Pacis MM, Fortin CN, Zarek SM, Mumford SL, Segars JH. Vitamin D and assisted reproduction: should vitamin D be routinely screened and repleted prior to ART? A systematic review. J Assist Reprod Genet 2015;32(3):323–35.
6. Blomberg Jensen M, Bjerrum PJ, Jessen TE, Nielsen JE, Joensen UN, Olesen IA, et al. Vitamin D is positively associated with sperm motility and increases intracellular calcium in human spermatozoa. Hum Reprod 2011;26(6):1307–17.
7. Yang B, Sun H, Wan Y, et al. Associations between testosterone, bone mineral density, vitamin D and semen quality in fertile and infertile Chinese men. Int J Androl 2012;35(6):783–92.
8. Blomberg Jensen M, Jorgensen A, et al. Expression of the vitamin D metabolizing enzyme CYP24A1 at the annulus of human spermatozoa may serve as a novel marker of semen quality. Int J Androl 2012;35(4):499–510.
9. Holick MF. Vitamin D deficiency. N Engl J Med 2007;357(3):266–81.
10. Ramlau-Hansen CH, Moeller UK, Bonde JP, Olsen J, Thulstrup AM. Are serum levels of vitamin D associated with semen quality? Results from a cross-sectional study in young healthy men. Fertil Steril 2011;95(3):1000–4.
11. Pludowski P, Ducki C, Konstantynowicz J, Jaworski M. Vitamin D status in Poland. Pol Arch Med Wewn 2016;126(7–8):530–9.
12. Jozkow P, Medras M, Lwow F, Zagrodna A, Slowinska-Lisowska M. Associations between physical activity and semen quality in young healthy men. Fertil Steril 2016 Feb;107(2):373-378. doi:10.1016j.fertnstert.2016.11.004.
13. Medras M, Lwow F, Jozkow P, et al. The quality of semen among a sample of young, healthy men from Lower Silesia (AndroLS). Endokrynol Pol 2017Oct;68(6):668-675. doi:10.5603/EP.a2017.0056.
14. Lwow F, Medraś M, Słowińska-Lisowska M, Jóźków P, Szmigiero L. The effect of occasional alcohol drinking on semen quality and sperm morphology among young and healthy Polish men. J Mens Health 2017(2):e16– e24%V 13.
15. Christakos S, Dhawan P, Verstuyf A, Verlinden L, Carmeliet G. Vitamin D: Metabolism, molecular mechanism of action, and pleiotropic effects. Physiol Rev 2016;96(1):365–408.
16. Anagnostis P, Karras S, Goulis DG. Vitamin D in hu-man reproduction: a narrative review. Int J Clin Pract 2013;67(3):225–35.
17. Corbett ST, Hill O, Nangia AK. Vitamin D receptor found in human sperm. Urology 2006;68(6):1345–9.
18. Boisen IM, Bollehuus Hansen L, et al. Possible influence of vitamin D on male reproduction. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2016 Oct;173:215-222. doi: 10.1016/ j.jsbmb.2016.09.023.
19. Hii CS, Ferrante A. The non-genomic actions of vitamin D. Nutrients 2016;8(3):135.
20. Tartagni M, Matteo M, Baldini D, et al. Males with low serum levels of vitamin D have lower pregnancy rates when ovulation induction and timed intercourse are used as a treatment for infertile couples: results from a pilot study. Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2015;13:127.
21. Bollehuus Hansen L, Rehfeld A, et al. Selection of high-quality spermatozoa may be promoted by activated vitamin D in the woman. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017;102(3):950–61.
22. Sun W, Chen L, Zhang W, Wang R, Goltzman D, Miao D. Active vitamin D deficiency mediated by extracellular calcium and phosphorus results in male infertility in young mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2015;308(1):E51–62.
23. Blomberg Jensen M, Gerner Lawaetz J, et al. Vitamin D deficiency and low ionized calcium are linked with semen quality and sex steroid levels in infertile men. Hum Reprod 2016;31(8):1875–85.
24. Manson JE, Brannon PM, Rosen CJ, Taylor CL. Vitamin D deficiency - is there really a pandemic? N Engl J Med 2016;375(19):1817–20.
25. Ross AC, Manson JE, Abrams SA, et al. The 2011 report on dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D from the Institute of Medicine: what clinicians need to know. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011;96(1):53–8.
26. Pludowski P, Karczmarewicz E, Bayer M, et al. Practical guidelines for the supplementation of vitamin D and the treatment of deficits in Central Europe - recommended vitamin D intakes in the general population and groups at risk of vitamin D deficiency. Endokrynol Pol 2013;64(4):319–27.
27. Deng XL, Li YM, Yang XY, Huang JR, Guo SL, Song LM. [Efficacy and safety of vitamin D in the treatment of idiopathic oligoasthenozoospermia]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2014;20(12):1082–5.
28. Jorde R, Grimnes G, Hutchinson MS, Kjaergaard M, Kamycheva E, Svartberg J. Supplementation with vitamin D does not increase serum testosterone levels in healthy males. Horm Metab Res 2013;45(9):675–81.
29. Nikooyeh B, Samiee SM, Farzami MR, et al. Harmonization of serum 25-hydroxycalciferol assay results from high-performance liquid chromatography, enzyme immunoassay, radioimmunoassay, and Immunochemiluminescence systems: A multicenter study. J Clin Lab Anal 2017.