Main Article Content
high-intensity, swimming, expression
Background and Objective
We aimed to examine the impact of high-intensity swimming exercise and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) on IL-1β, TNF-α, and COX-2 gene expression in the small intestine and colon of mice.
Material and Methods
Forty male C57BL/6 mice were divided into 4 groups: the control group (CON), swimming exercise group (EX), 50% ethanol (EtoH) control group (50%EtoH CON), and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid group (TNBS). The EX group performed 4 weeks of exercise. Intrarectal TNBS injection induced IBD in the TNBS group; the 50%EtoH CON group received control injections. Reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction were used to examine IL-1β, TNF-α, and COX-2 mRNA expression in the small intestine and colon.
IL-1β, TNF-α, and COX-2 mRNA expression was significantly increased in the EX group compared to that in the CON group (p’s<0.05). IL-1β and COX-2 mRNA expression was significantly increased in the TNBS group compared to that in the 50%EtoH CON group (p’s<0.05).
Thus, inflammatory cytokine IL-1β and COX-2 expression in the small intestine and colon was increased in both high-intensity swimming exercise and IBD models. However, TNF-α was increased only in the swimming exercise model. Further research is required to confirm these observations and establish swimming exercise regimes appropriate for patients with IBD.
2. Walsh NP, Gleeson M, Shephard RJ, et al. Position statement. Part one: Immune function and exercise. Exerc Immunol Rev 2011;17:6–63.
3. Szalai Z, Szasz A, Nagy I, et al. Anti-inflammatory effect of recreational exercise in TNBS-induced colitis in rats: role of NOS/HO/MPO system. Oxidat Med Cell Longev 2014;2014:925981.
4. Simpson RJ, Kunz H, Agha N, et al. Exercise and the regulation of immune functions. Prog Molec Biol Transl Sci 2015;135:355–80.
5. Cohen DC, Winstanley A, Englegow A, et al. Marathon-induced ischemic colitis: why running is not always good for you. Am J Emerg Med 2009;27(2):255.e5–7.
6. Gezqinci-oktayoglu S, Orhan N, Bolkent S. Prostaglandin-E1 has a protective effect on renal ischemia/reperfusion-induced oxidative stress and inflammation mediated gastric damage in rats. Internat Immunophar-macol 2016;36:142–50.
7. Moreira NM, Santos FD, Toledo MJ, et al. Moderate physical exercise reduces parasitaemia and protects colonic myenteric neurons in mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Int J Exp Pathol 2013;94(6):426–35.
8. Bilski J, Brzozowsik B, Mazur-bialy A, et al. The role of physical exercise in inflammatory bowel disease. BioMed Res Internat 2014;2014:429031
9. Jang HJ, Choi MH, Eun CS, et al. Clinical usefulness of double balloon enteroscopy in suspected Crohn’s disease: the KASID multi-center trial. Hepato-gastroenterology 2014;61(133):1292–96.
10. Koutroubakis I, Manousos ON, Meuwissen SG, et al. Environmental risk factors in inflammatory bowel disease. Hepato-gastroenterology 1996;43(8):381–93.
11. Herrlinger KR, Diculscu M, Fellermann K, et al. Efficacy, safety and tolerability of vidofludimus in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: the ENTRANCE study. J Crohn’s Colitis 2013;7(8):636–43.
12. Sartor RB. Cytokines in intestinal inflammation: pathophysiological and clinical considerations. Gastroenterology 1994;106(2):533–9.
13. Khanna R, Feagan BG. Emerging Therapies for inflamma tory bowel disease. Digest Dis 2016;34(Suppl 1):67–73
14. Voronov E, Apte RN. IL-1 in colon inflammation, colon carcinogenesis and invasiveness of colon cancer. Cancer Microenviron 2015;8(3):187–200.
15. Gudis K, Sakamoto C. The role of cyclooxygenase in gastric mucosal protection. Digest Dis Sci 2005;50 (Suppl 1):S16–23.
16. Singh S, Dulai PS, Zarrinpar A, et al. Obesity in IBD: epidemiology, pathogenesis, disease course and treatment outcomes. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2016;14(2):110–21.
17. Bilski J, Maxur-bialy A, Brzozowski B, et al. Can exercise affect the course of inflammatory bowel disease. Exp Clin Evid Pharmacol Rep 2016;68(4):827–36.
18. Chea J, Yang HI, Kim B, et al. Inflammatory bowel disease Patients’ participation, attitude and preferences toward exercise. Int J Sports Med 2016;37(8):665–70.
19. Cook MD, Martin SA, Williams C, et al. Forced treadmill exercise training exacerbates inflammation and causes mortality while voluntary wheel training is protective in a mouse model of colitis. Brain Behav Immun 2013;33:46–56.
20. Geng X, Xue J. Expression of Treg/Th17 cells as well as related cytokines in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Pakistan J Med Sci 2016;32(5):1164–8.
21. Cullen T, Thomas AW, Webb R, et al. Interleukin-6 and associated cytokine responses to an acute bout of high-intensity interval exercise: the effect of exercise intensity and volume. Appl Physiol Nutrit Metabol 2016;41(8):803–8.
22. Morinoto K, Ohta K, Yachie A, et al. Cytoprotective role of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 in human kidney with various renal disease. Kidney Int 2001;60(5):1858–66.
23. Kvernmo H, Olsen JO, Osterud B. Changes in blood cell response following strenuous physical exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 1992;64(4):318–22.
24. Pervaiz N, Hoffman-goetz I. Immune cell inflammatory cytokine responses differ between central and systemic compartments in response to acute exercise in mice. Exer Immunol Rev 2012;18:142–57.
25. Scott JP, Sale C, Greeves JP, et al. Cytokine response to acute runing in recreationally-active and endurance-trained men. Eur JAppl Physiol 2013;113(7):1871–82.
26. Wang J, Zhao D, Li J, et al. The impact of water-floating and high-intensity exercise on rat’s HPA axis and interleukins concentrations. Acta Physiologica Hungarica 2012;99(3):261–7.
27. Lee HJ, Choi SC, Lee MH, et al. Increased expression of MIP-3alpha/CCL20 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with ulcerative colitis and its down-regulation by sulfasalazine and glucocorticoid treatment. Inflam Bowel Dis 2005;11(12):1070–9.
28. Krenke K, Peradzynska J, Lange J, et al. Inflammatory cytokines in exhaled breath condensate in children with inflammatory bowel disease. Pediatr Pulmonol 2014;49(12):1190–5.
29. Li L, Liu Z, Yang X, et al. Bioluminescence imaging for IL-1b expression in experimental colitis. J Inflammat 2013;10:16.
30. Abdallah HH, Freund JN, Reimund JM, et al. Enteropathogenic e. coli sustains iodoacetamide-induced ulerative dolitis-like colitis in rats: modulation of IL-1 β, IL-6, TNF-α, COX-2, and apoptosis. J Bio Regulat Homeost Agents 2012;26(3):515–26.