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Ralf Herwig
Ashraf Kamel
Ridwan Shabsigh


erectile dysfunction, veno-occlusive diseases


To provide a state-of-the-art literature review on veno-occlusive diseases as a pathomechanism of vasculogenic erectile dysfunction (ED).
A comprehensive systematic literature search was conducted followed by sorting, review, and summarizing.

The systematic review of the literature reveals a significant number of recent studies dealing with new minimally invasive methods to provide a potential solution of caverno-venous leakage. Even the long-term results reported demonstrate considerable improvement of ED caused by this condition. Furthermore, 3-D computed tomography cavernosography (CT-cavernosography) is a new technology, which can provide high-resolution images of venous drainage from any angle and shows to be very helpful for both the diagnosis of corporal veno-occlusive dysfunction and the anatomical study of the human penile venous system. The application of this technology may also lead to better strategies in venous leak treatment. Over 30 published studies were found in the literature with good results after caverno-venous leak treatment. Altogether, 13 comparable studies including 538 patients were found, in which a mean short-term success rate of almost 80% and a mean long-term success rate of up to 74% was achieved. None of the studies described major complications.
ED is an increasingly important issue, especially in young men. Whereas the current treatment strategies are mostly focused on older men, young patients are seeking more a longer lasting or more definitive solutions, rather than a lifelong medical treatment. Various chronic disorders have been reported to be associated with elevated rates of ED including depression, diabetes, and cardiovascular and neurological disease in older men. Properly selected cases of young men may benefit from treatment of caverno-venous leak treatment. The current strategy in the treatment of ED in young men may be reconsidered.


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