EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM AEROBIC EXERCISE ON THE ANTIOXIDANT SYSTEM AND LYMPHOCYTE DNA DAMAGE BY TRIATHLON DISTANCE

Main Article Content

Dae-Eun Kim
Il-Young Paik
Su-Youn Cho
Jin-Hee Woo
Ju-Yong Bae
Hee-Tae Roh

Keywords

aerobic exercise, muscle damage markers, lymphocyte DNA damage, amateur athletes

Abstract

Background and Objective


This study aimed to investigate the effects of long-term aerobic exercise on muscle damage markers, lymphocyte DNA damage, and antioxidant system in amateur athletes.


Material and Methods


Eleven healthy men in their 30s and 40s without any medical illness, who did not smoke or drink, and had completed at least two amateur triathlon races (O2 and Olympic courses) were enrolled. They underwent physical examination and four blood sampling sessions: at rest, immediately after a race, during recovery (3 and 6 days after the race), and after completing an Olympic course. Blood sampling was performed using the same method one month later. Weight (kg) and saturation of peripheral oxygen (SpO2) were measured. Tail intensity, tail moment, and tail length, and levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), creatine kinase (CK), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were analyzed.


Results


First, the study found significant changes between the body weight at rest and immediately after the race (p<.001) and between those immediately after the race and 3 and 6 days after the race (p<.001) for both courses. Second, for both courses, SpO2 declined immediately after the race and tended to rise again during recovery, but the difference was not significant. Third, in the Olympic course, significant differences were found between lymphocyte tail moment ™ at rest and that immediately after the race (p<.01) and between those immediately after the race and 3 and 6 days after the race (p<.05, p<.01). In the O2 course, significant differences were found between lymphocyte TM at rest and that immediately after the race (p<.01), between those at rest and 3 days of recovery (p<.001), between those immediately after the race and 3 days of recovery (p<.001), between those at rest and 6 days of recovery (p<.01), and between those at 3 and 6 days after the race (p<.01). Both courses significantly differed in lymphocyte TM immediately after the race (p<.05). Fourth, significant differences were observed between serum SOD at rest and that immediately after the race (p<.05), between those at rest and 3 days after the race (p<.01) and in serum SOD between that immediately after the race and 6 days after the race (p<.05) in the Olympic course. In the O2 course, serum SOD at rest and those at 3 and 6 days after the race significantly differed (p<.05). The two courses differed in serum SOD at 3 days after the race (p<.05). Fifth, in both courses, compared with the levels at rest, serum CK concentrations immediately after the race (p<.001) and 3 and 6 days after the race significantly differed (p<.01, p<.001). In both courses, significant differences were observed between serum CK concentrations immediately after the race and those at 3 and 6 days after the race (p<.01, p<.001) and between those at 3 and 6 days after the race (p<.001). Both courses significantly differed in serum CK concentrations immediately after the race (p<.001) and those at 3 and 6 days after the race (p<.05). In the Olympic course, serum LDH concentrations between those at rest and immediately after the race (p<.001), between those at rest and 3 days of recovery (p<.01), and between those immediately after the race and 3 and 6 days after the race showed significant differences (p<.001). In the O2 course, significant differences were found between serum LDH at rest and that immediately after the race (p<.001), between those at rest and 3 and 6 days after the race (p<.01, p<.001), between those immediately after the race and 3 and 6 days after the race (p<.001), and between those at 3 and 6 days after the race (p<.001). The two courses significantly differed in serum LDH levels immediately after the race (p<.001) and those at 3 and 6 days after the race (p<.05).


Conclusion


Triathlon, which involves long-term high-intensity aerobic exercise, leads to temporary weight loss, DNA damage, and muscle damage after the race, and such changes are affected by exercise duration and intensity. During this change, defense mechanisms, including the antioxidant defense mechanism, are thought to protect the body from DNA and muscle damage.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.
Abstract 504 | pdf Downloads 248

References

1. Bentley DJ, Millet GP, Vleck VE, et al. Specific aspects of contemporary triathlon: implications for physiological analysis and performance. Sports Med 2002;32(6):345–59.
2. Hamman RF, Wing RR, Edelstein SL, et al. Effect of weight loss with lifestyle intervention on risk of diabetes. Diabet Care 2006;29:2102-07.
3. Radak Z, Chung HY, Goto S. Systemic adaptation to oxidative challenge induced by regular exercise. Free Radic Bio. Med 2008;44:153–9.
4. Shern-Brewer R, Santanam N, Wetzstein C, et al. Exercise and cardiovascular disease: A new perspective. Arterioscler. Thromb Vasc Biol 1998;18:1181–87.
5. Packer L, Cadenas E, Davies KJA. Free radicals and exercise: an introduction. Free Radic Biol Med 2008;44:123–5.
6. Powers SK, Jackson MJ. Exercise-induced oxidative stress: cellular mechanisms and impact on muscle force production. Physiol Rev 2008;88(4):1243–76.
7. Mastaloudis A, Tian WY, Obert P, et al. Endurance exercise results in DNA damage as detected by the COMET ASSAY. Free Radic Biol Med 2004;36(8):966–75.
8. Knasmüller S, Nersesyan A, Misík M, et al. Use of conventional and -omics based methods for health claims of dietary antioxidants: a critical overview. Br J Nutr 2008;99: ES3–ES52.
9. Avery NG, Kaiser JL, Sharman MJ, et al. Effects of vitamin E supplementation on recovery from repeated bouts of resistance exercise. J Strength Cond Res 2003;17(4):801–9.
10. Wu LL, Chiou CC, Chang PY, et al. Urinary 8-OHdG: a marker of oxidative stress to DNA and a risk factor for cancer, atherosclerosis and diabetics. Clin Chim Acta 2004;339:1–9.
11. Mastaloudis A, Leonard S, Traber M. Oxidative stress in athletes during extreme endurance exercise. Free Radic Biol Med 2001;31:911–22.
12. Knez WL, Jenkins DG, Coombes JS. Oxidative stress in half and full Ironman triathletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2007;39:283–8.
13. Pinho RA, Andrades ME, Oliveira MR, et al. Imbalance in SOD/CAT activities in rat skeletal muscles submitted to treadmill training exercise. Cell Biol Int 2006;30:848–53.
14. Poulsen H, Loft S, Vistisen K. Extreme exercise and oxidative DNA modification. J. Sports Sci 1996;14:343–6.
15. Ostling O, Johanson KJ. Mcroelectrophoretic study of radiation-induced DNA damages in individual cell. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1984;123(1):291–8.
16. Singh NP, McCoy MT, Tice RR, et al. A simple technique for quantitation of low levels of DNA damage in individual cells. Exp Cell Res 1988;175:184–91.
17. Davison GW. Exercise and oxidative damage in nucleoid DNA quantified using single cell gel electrophoresis: present and future application, Front Physiol 2016;7:249.
18. Ryu JH, Paik IY, Woo JH, et al. Impact of different running distances on muscle and lymphocyte DNA damage in amateur marathon runners. J Phys Ther Sci 2016;28(2):450–5.
19. Laursen PB, Suriano R, Quod MJ, et al. Core temperature and hydration status during an Ironman triathlon. Br J Sports Med 2006;40:320–5.
20. Baur DA, Bach CW, Hyder WJ, et al. Fluid retention, muscle damage, and altered body composition at the Ultra-man triathlon. Eur J Appl Physiol 2016;116(3):447–58.
21. Gill SK, Teixeira A, Rama L, et al. Circulatory endo-toxin concentration and cytokine profile in response to exertional-heat stress during a multi-stage ultra-marathon competition. Exerc Immunol Rev 2015;21:114–28.
22. Barrero A, Erola P, Bescos R. Energy balance of triathletes during an ultra-endurance event. Nutrients 2015;7:209–22.
23. Pinho RA, Silva LA, Pinho CA, et al. Oxidative stress and inflammatory parameters after an Ironman race. Clin J Sport Med 2010;20(4):306–11.
24. Del Coso J, González C, Abian-Vicen J, et al. Relationship between physiological parameters and performance during a half-ironman triathlon in the heat. J Sports Sci 2014;32(18):1680–7.
25. Kim KJ, Kim HS, Kim DH, et al. Relationship between endurance capacity and SpO₂response to graded exercise (in Korean). Exercise Sci 2000;9(2):355–63.
26. Dempsey JA, Hanseon P, Henderson K. Exercise induced alveolar hypoxemia in healthy human subjects at sea level. J Physiol 1984;355:161–75.
27. Wasserman K, Hansen JE, Sue DE, et al. Principles of Exercise Testing and Interpretation. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2005.
28. Wilmore JH, Costill DL. Physiology of sports and exercise(2nd ed.). IL; Humankinetics; 1999.
29. Finaud J, Lac G, Filaire E. Oxidative stress: relationship with exercise and training. Sports Med 2006;36:327–58.
30. Wiseman H, Halliwell B. Damage to DNA by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species: role in inflammatory disease and progression to cancer. Biochem J 1996;313(1):17–29.
31. Han D, Loukianoff S, McLaughlin L. Handbook of Oxidants and Antioxidants in Exercise. In Hanninen, O., Packer, L. & Sen, C.K.(Eds.); 2000.
32. Collins AR, Oscoz AA, Brunborg G, et al. The comet assay: topical issues. Mutagenesis 2008;23:143–51.
33. Vezzoli A, Dellanoce C, Mrakic-Sposta S, et al. Oxidative stress assessment in response to ultraendurance exercise: thiols redox status and ros production according to duration of a competitive race. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016;6439037.
34. Cho SY, Roh HT. Effects of NADPH oxidase p22phox C242T Polymorphism on Oxidative Stress According to the High-Intensity Aerobic Exercise (in Korean). Korean J Phys Educ 2012;51(1):441–9.
35. Reichhold S, Neubauer O, Hoelzl C, et al. DNA damage in response to an Ironman triathlon. Free Radic Res 2009;43(8):753-60.
36. Sachdev S, Davies KJ. Production, detection, and adaptive responses to free radicals in exercise. Free Radic Biol Med 2008;44:215–23.
37. Leeuwenburgh C, Heinecke J. Oxidative stress and antioxidants in exercise. Curr Med Chem 2001;8:829–38.
38. Crespo I, Garcia-Mediavilla MV, Almar M, et al. Differential effects of dietary flavonoids on reactive oxygen and nitrogen species generation and changes in antioxidant enzyme expression induced by proinflammatory cytokines in Chang Liver cells. Food Chem Toxicol 2008;46(5):1555–69.
39. Shin YA, Lee JH, Song W, et al. Exercise training improves the antioxidant enzyme activity with no changes of telomere length. MechAgeing Dev 2008;129(5):254–60.
40. Areces F, González Millán C, Salinero JJ, et al. Changes in serum free amino acids and muscle fatigue experienced during a half-ironman triathlon. PLoS One 2015;10(9):e0138376