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Original Research

Open Access


Normobaric Hypoxic Training on Metabolic Syndrome

  • Sohee Shin1
  • Toshio Matsuoka2
  • Wi-Young So3

1Assistant professor, School of Exercise and Sport Science, University of Ulsan, Ulsan, Korea

2Professor, Chubu Gakuin University, Gifu, Japan.

3Associate Professor, Sports and Health Care Major, College of Humanities and Arts, Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju-si, Korea

DOI: 10.22347/1875-6859.14.1.5 Vol.14,Issue 1,January 2018 pp.44-52

Published: 01 January 2018

*Corresponding Author(s): Wi-Young So E-mail:


Background and Objective

This study examined the infl uence of short-term normobaric hypoxic training on metabolic syndrome-related markers in overweight and normal-weight men.

Material and Methods

Forty-one Japanese men were included and divided into two groups based on their body mass indices (BMIs): BMI≥25 or BMI<25. Participants in the overweight and normal-weight groups were randomly classifi ed into the hypoxic exercise group (hypoxic overweight, HO; hypoxic normal-weight, HN) and the normoxic exercise group (normoxic overweight, NO; normoxic normal-weight, NN). Subjects performed treadmill exercise three days per week for four weeks at an exercise intensity of 60% of maximum heart rate, under either normobaric hypoxic or normobaric normoxic conditions, for 50 min (including 5 minute warm-up and cool-down periods) after a 30-min rest period. The study parameters included weight, body fat percentage, BMI, heart rate, waist circumference, ankle-brachial pulse wave velocity (PWV), blood sugar, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), fasting insulin, Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) scores, and adiponectin levels. Repeated measures two-way analysis of variance was used to examine diff erences in the mean parameter values between the two groups (overweight and normal-weight) before and after training.


Hypoxic training improved the weight, body fat percentage, BMI, waist circumference, PWV, TC, LDL-C levels, and HOMA-IR scores in the overweight and normal-weight groups (p<0.05). In addition, TG level, HDL-C level, and HOMA-IR scores showed signifi cant interactions with hypoxic training, as these parameters improved in the hypoxic overweight group (p<0.05).


These results suggest that hypoxic training could be useful for improving arterial stiff ness, circulatory system function, body composition, and energy metabolism in adult males.

Cite and Share

Sohee Shin,Toshio Matsuoka,Wi-Young So. INFLUENCES OF SHORT-TERM NORMOBARIC HYPOXIC TRAINING ON METABOLIC SYNDROME-RELATED MARKERS IN OVERWEIGHT AND NORMAL-WEIGHT MENNormobaric Hypoxic Training on Metabolic Syndrome. Journal of Men's Health. 2018. 14(1);44-52.


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