Article Data

  • Views 583
  • Dowloads 125

Original Research

Open Access


  • Seok Hee Kim1,†
  • Hyuek Jong Lee2,†
  • Wi-Young So3

1Assistant Professor, School of Humanities and Social Science, College of Liberal Arts and Convergence Science, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon-si, Republic of Korea

2Postdoctoral Fellow, Key laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, People’s Republic of China

3Associate Professor, Sports and Health Care Major, College of Humanities and Arts, Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju-si, Korea

DOI: 10.22347/1875-6859.14.1.6 Vol.14,Issue 1,January 2018 pp.32-43

Published: 01 January 2018

*Corresponding Author(s): Wi-Young So E-mail:

† These authors contributed equally.

PDF (126.91 kB)


Background and Objective

The health benefi ts of regular exercise are well known, and the transition to adulthood is an important time for establishing exercise habits. In this study, we aimed to identify the degree of obesity prevention and fi tness according to exercise level in male and female university students who live in dormitories.

Material and Methods

This study included 1,808 university dormitory residents, 1,263 men and 545 women, who completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and were classifi ed into groups according to exercise habit. Sociodemo-graphic data were expressed as frequency and percent, and one-way analysis of variance was conducted to examine the group diff erence according to exercise habit.


Weight, muscle mass, lean body mass, and basal metabolism were signifi cantly higher in male university students living in dormitories who habitually exercise at least 3 times a week compared to those who exercise less often (p<0.05). The body mass index was higher in female university students living in dormitories who exercise at least 3 times a week compared to those who exercise less often (p<0.05). The former group could also perform a greater number of sit-ups (p<0.01) and had greater back strength (p<0.01) and faster whole-body reaction time (p<0.01). Women who exercised at least once a week could perform more push-ups versus those who did not exercise (p<0.01). Male university students living in dormitory who exercise at least 3 times a week had higher systolic blood pressure and greater grip strength than male students who exercised twice a week or less (p<0.05); they could also do more push-ups (p<0.05).


University students who exercise at least 3 times a week have somewhat higher fi tness and healthier body composition compared to those who exercise twice a week or less. These diff erences may impact lifetime fi tness and body composition.

Cite and Share



1. Pierce EF, Butterworth SW, Lynn TD, O’Shea J, Hammer WG. Fitness profiles and activity patterns of entering college students. J Am Coll Health 1992;41(2):59–62.

2. Racette SB, Deusinger SS, Strube MJ, et al. Changes in weight and health behaviors from freshman through senior year of college. J Nutrit Educat Behav 2008;40(1):39–42.

3. Boujut E, Bruchon-Schweitzer M. A construction and validation of a freshman stress questionnaire: an exploratory study. Psychol Rep 2009;104(2):680–92.

4. Association ACoH. The american college health associa-tion national college health assessment (ACHA-NCHA), Spring 2003 reference group report. J Am Coll Healt 2005;53(5):199.

5. Huang TT-K, Kempf AM, Strother ML, et al. Overweight and components of the metabolic syndrome in college students. Diabet Care 2004;27(12):3000–1.

6. Deliens T, Clarys P, De Bourdeaudhuij I, Deforche B. Weight, socio-demographics, and health behaviour related correlates of academic performance in fi rst year university students. Nutrit J 2013;12(1):162.

7. Finlayson G, Cecil J, Higgs S, Hill A, Hetherington

M. Susceptibility to weight gain. Eating behaviour traits and physical activity as predictors of weight gain during the fi rst year of university. Appetite 2012;58(3): 1091–8.

8. Boujut E, Koleck M, Bruchon-Schweitzer M, Bourgeois 

M- L, editors. La santé mentale chez les étudiants: suivi d’une cohorte en première année d’université. Annales Médico-psychologiques, revue psychiatrique. Elsevier; 2009.

9. Crombie AP, Ilich JZ, Dutton GR, Panton LB, Abood DA. The freshman weight gain phenomenon revisited. Nutrit Rev 2009;67(2):83–94.

10. Hoff man DJ, Policastro P, Quick V, Lee S-K. Changes in body weight and fat mass of men and women in the fi rst year of college: A study of the “freshman 15”. J Am Coll Health 2006;55(1):41–6.

11. Gropper SS, Simmons KP, Connell LJ, Ulrich PV. Changes in body weight, composition, and shape: a

4- year study of college students. Appl Physiol Nutrit Metabol 2012;37(6):1118–23.

12. de Vos P, Hanck C, Neisingh M, Prak D, Groen H, Faas 

MM. Weight gain in freshman college students and perceived health. Prevent Med Rep 2015;2:229–34.

13. Vella-Zarb RA, Elgar FJ. The ‘freshman 5’: a meta-analysis of weight gain in the freshman year of college. J Am Coll Health 2009;58(2):161–6.

14. Lin X, Zhang X, Guo J, et al. Eff ects of exercise training on cardiorespiratory fi tness and biomarkers of cardiometabolic health: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Am Heart Assoc 2015;4(7):e002014.

15. Arias-Palencia NM, Solera-Martínez M, et al. Levels and patterns of objectively assessed physical activity and compliance with diff erent public health guidelines in university students. PloS One 2015;10(11):e0141977.

16. Kim S, Kim J. Mood after various brief exercise and sport modes: aerobics, hip-hop dancing, ice skat-ing, and body conditioning. Percept Motor Skills 2007;104(3_suppl):1265–70.

17. Byrne A, Byrne D. The eff ect of exercise on depression, anxiety and other mood states: a review. J Psychosomat Res 1993;37(6):565–74.

18. Li L, Men W-W, Chang Y-K, Fan M-X, Ji L, Wei G-X. Acute aerobic exercise increases cortical activity during working memory: a functional MRI study in female college students. PloS One 2014;9(6):e99222.

19. Park SJ, Lee JH, Woo SJ, et al. Five heavy metallic ele-ments and age-related macular degeneration: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008–2011. Ophthalmology 2015;122(1):129–37.

20. Heyward VH, Wagner DR. Applied body composition assessment: Hum Kinetics 2004.

21. Heyward VH, Gibson A. Advanced fi tness assessment and exercise prescription 7th edition: Hum Kinet 2014.

22. Small M, Bailey-Davis L, Morgan N, Maggs J. Changes in eating and physical activity behaviors across seven semesters of college: living on or off campus matters. Health Educat Behav 2013;40(4):435–41.

23. Pender NJ, Murdaugh CL, Parsons MA. Health promo-tion in nursing practice. 2006.

24. Troyer D, Ullrich IH, Yeater RA, Hopewell R. Physical activity and condition, dietary habits, and serum lipids in second-year medical students. J Am Coll Nutrit 1990;9(4):303–7.

25. LaMonte MJ, Yanowitz FG, Hunt SC, Adams TD. Fitness and the metabolic syndrome among severely obese adults. Med Sci Sports Exercise 2004;36(5):S7.

26. Shaw DI, Hall WL, Williams CM. Metabolic syndrome: what is it and what are the implications? Proc Nutrit Soc 2005;64(3):349–57.

27. DeFronzo RA, Ferrannini E. Insulin resistance: a mul-tifaceted syndrome responsible for NIDDM, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerotic car-diovascular disease. Diabet Care 1991;14(3):173–94.

28. Brehm BA. Elevation of metabolic rate following ex-ercise. Sports Med 1988;6(2):72–8.

29. Poehlman ET, Viers HF, Detzer M. Infl uence of physical activity and dietary restraint on resting energy expenditure in young nonobese females. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1991;69(3):320–6.

30. Kiefer I, Kunze U, Mitsche N, Kunze M. Obesity in Austria: epidemiologic and social medicine aspects. Acta Med Austr 1997;25(4-5):126–8.

31. Jakicic JM, Clark K, Coleman E, et al. American Col-lege of Sports Medicine position stand. Appropriate intervention strategies for weight loss and prevention of weight regain for adults. Med Sci Sports Exercise 2001;33(12):2145–56.

32. Eyler AA, Baker E, Cromer L, King AC, Brownson RC, Donatelle RJ. Physical activity and minority women: a qualitative study. Health Educat Behav 1998;25(5):640–52.

Abstracted / indexed in

Science Citation Index Expanded Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,200 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.

Social Sciences Citation Index Social Sciences Citation Index contains over 3,400 journals across 58 social sciences disciplines, as well as selected items from 3,500 of the world’s leading scientific and technical journals. More than 9.37 million records and 122 million cited references date back from 1900 to present.

Current Contents - Social & Behavioral Sciences Current Contents - Social & Behavioral Sciences provides easy access to complete tables of contents, abstracts, bibliographic information and all other significant items in recently published issues from over 1,000 leading journals in the social and behavioral sciences.

Current Contents - Clinical Medicine Current Contents - Clinical Medicine provides easy access to complete tables of contents, abstracts, bibliographic information and all other significant items in recently published issues from over 1,000 leading journals in clinical medicine.

SCOPUS Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.

DOAJ DOAJ is a community-curated online directory that indexes and provides access to high quality, open access, peer-reviewed journals.

CrossRef Crossref makes research outputs easy to find, cite, link, assess, and reuse. Crossref committed to open scholarly infrastructure and collaboration, this is now announcing a very deliberate path.

Portico Portico is a community-supported preservation archive that safeguards access to e-journals, e-books, and digital collections. Our unique, trusted process ensures that the content we preserve will remain accessible and usable for researchers, scholars, and students in the future.

Submission Turnaround Time