Article Data

  • Views 1529
  • Dowloads 176

Original Research

Open Access

EFFECTS OF 4 WEEKS OF HORSEBACK RIDING ON ANXIETY, DEPRESSION, AND SELF ESTEEM IN CHILDREN WITH ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER

  • Wi-Young So1
  • So-Young Lee2
  • Yoonjung Park3
  • Dong-il Seo2

1Associate Professor, Sports and Health Care Major, College of Humanities and Arts, Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju-si, Republic of Korea

2Researcher, Department of Sport Science, Dongguk University, Gyeongju, Republic of Korea

3Assistant Professor, Department of Health and Human Performance, College of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences, University of Houston, Texas, USA

DOI: 10.22374/1875-6859.13.2.2 Vol.13,Issue 2,September 2017 pp.1-7

Published: 28 September 2017

*Corresponding Author(s): Dong-il Seo E-mail: seodi74@dongguk.ac.kr

Abstract

Background and Objective

There is no report on the effects of horseback riding on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 4 weeks of horseback riding on anxiety, depression, self esteem, attention, and learning disorder in children with ADHD.

Materials and Methods

Subjects comprised a convenience sample of 10 children aged 10–12 years with ADHD and 10 children without ADHD. Horseback riding sessions were performed 2 times (40 minutes/day) per week for 4 weeks. Before and after the horseback riding program, we measured the children’s anxiety, depression, self esteem, attention, and learning disorder. The pre-test and post-test scores were analyzed with repeated-measures analysis of variance.

Results

After participating in the 4-week horseback riding program, anxiety (p = 0.013), depression (p = 0.007), attention (p < 0.001), and learning disorder (p < 0.001) were significantly improved in the ADHD group compared to the normal group. However, self esteem was not significantly different between the 2 groups (p = 0.096).

Conclusion

These results indicate that the 4-week horseback riding program used in this study was very effective for significantly improving anxiety, depression, and attention in children with ADHD.

Keywords

anxiety, depression, self esteem, attention, attention deficit disorder, horseback riding therapy

Cite and Share

Wi-Young So,So-Young Lee,Yoonjung Park,Dong-il Seo. EFFECTS OF 4 WEEKS OF HORSEBACK RIDING ON ANXIETY, DEPRESSION, AND SELF ESTEEM IN CHILDREN WITH ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER. Journal of Men's Health. 2017. 13(2);1-7.

References

1. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition. Arlington, VA: Arlington American Psychiatric Pub-lishing; 2013.

2. Perou R, Bitsko RH, Blumberg SJ, et al. Mental health surveillance among children - United States, 2005-2011. MMWR Suppl 2013;62(2):1–35.

3. Ministry of Education (South Korea). The Student Emotional and Behavioral Problems Screening Test. Ministry of Education. 2013; http://www.moe.go.kr/boardCnts/view.do?boardID=294&lev=0&statusYN= W&s=moe&m=0503&opType=N&boardSeq=50575. Accessed September 23, 2013.

4. Mihandoost Z. Treatment programs for students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a meta-analysis study. Iran J Psychiatr Behav Sci 2015;9(3):e1840.

5. Stefanini MC, Martino A, Allori P, et al. The use of animal-assisted therapy in adolescents with acute mental disorders: a randomized controlled study. Complemen-tary Ther Clin Pract 2015;21(1):42–6.

6. North American Riding for the Handicapped Asso-ciation. PATH International. Available at: http://www. pathintl.org/.

7. Holm MB, Baird JM, Kim YJ, et al. Therapeutic horseback riding outcomes of parent-identified goals for children with autism spectrum disorder: an ABA’ multiple case design examining dosing and generaliza-tion to the home and community. J Autism Dev Disord 2014;44(4):937–47.

8. Zadnikar M, Kastrin A. Effects of hippotherapy and therapeutic horseback riding on postural control or bal-ance in children with cerebral palsy: a meta-analysis. Dev Med Child Neurol 2011;53(8):684–91.

9. Drnach M, O’Brien PA, Kreger A. The effects of a

5- week therapeutic horseback riding program on gross motor function in a child with cerebral palsy: a case study. J Altern Complement Med 2010;16(9):1003–6.

10. Dupaul GJ, Power TJ, Anastopoulos AD, et al. ADHD Rating Scale-IV: Checklist, Norms, and Clinical Inter-pretation. New York, NY: Guilford; 1998.

11. Reynolds CR, Richmond BO. What I think and feel: a revised measure of children’s manifest anxiety. J Abnorm Child Psychol 1978;6:271–80.

12. Radloff LS. The CES-D scale: a self-report depres-sion scale for research in the general population. Appl Psycholog Measure 1977;1:385–401.

13. Rosenberg M. Society and the Adolescent Self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press; 1965.

14. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2000.

15. Memarmoghaddam M, Torbati HT, Sohrabi M, et al. Effects of a selected exercise program on executive function of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Med Life 2016;9:373–9.

16. Archer T, Kostrzewa RM. Physical exercise alleviates ADHD symptoms: regional deficits and development trajectory. Neurotox Res 2012;21(2):195–209.

17. Bowers MJ, McDonald PM. The effectiveness of equine-facilitated psychotherapy with at risk adolescents: a pilot study. J Psychol Behav Sci 2001;15:62–76.

18. Iannuzzi D, Rowan A. Ethical issues in animal-assisted therapy programs. Anthrozoos 1991;4(3):154–63.

19. Park YJ, Jang HY, Kim JH. Effects of using convergence horseback riding program on the emotion-behavior de-velopment, anxiety, depression and ADHD in adolescent. J Korea Converg Soc (in Korean) 2016;7(6): 287–95.

20. Meßler CF, Holmberg HC, Sperlich B. Multimodal therapy involving high-intensity interval training improves the physical fitness, motor skills, social behavior, and quality of life of boys with ADHD: a randomized controlled study. J Atten Disord 2016; Mar 24. Available at: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1087054716636936.

21. Lee JJ. The effect of equine of facilitated therapy programs on the advancement of self-expressions and social skills of children with intellectual disabilities. J Play Ther (in Korean) 2015;19:117–29.

22. Hong JY, Yoon JH. Study for equine facilitated psy-chotherapy. J Play Ther (in Korean) 2009;13:99–111.

Abstracted / indexed in

Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch) Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,200 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.

Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition aims to evaluate a journal’s value from multiple perspectives including the journal impact factor, descriptive data about a journal’s open access content as well as contributing authors, and provide readers a transparent and publisher-neutral data & statistics information about the journal.

Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) DOAJ is a unique and extensive index of diverse open access journals from around the world, driven by a growing community, committed to ensuring quality content is freely available online for everyone.

SCImago The SCImago Journal & Country Rank is a publicly available portal that includes the journals and country scientific indicators developed from the information contained in the Scopus® database (Elsevier B.V.)

Publication Forum - JUFO (Federation of Finnish Learned Societies) Publication Forum is a classification of publication channels created by the Finnish scientific community to support the quality assessment of academic research.

Scopus: CiteScore 0.7 (2022) Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.

Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers Search for publication channels (journals, series and publishers) in the Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers to see if they are considered as scientific. (https://kanalregister.hkdir.no/publiseringskanaler/Forside).

Submission Turnaround Time

Conferences

Top