EFFECTS OF 4 WEEKS OF HORSEBACK RIDING ON ANXIETY, DEPRESSION, AND SELF ESTEEM IN CHILDREN WITH ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER
1Associate Professor, Sports and Health Care Major, College of Humanities and Arts, Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju-si, Republic of Korea
2Researcher, Department of Sport Science, Dongguk University, Gyeongju, Republic of Korea
3Assistant Professor, Department of Health and Human Performance, College of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences, University of Houston, Texas, USA
DOI: 10.22374/1875-68184.108.40.206 Vol.13,Issue 2,September 2017 pp.1-7
Published: 28 September 2017
*Corresponding Author(s): Dong-il Seo E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Background and Objective
There is no report on the effects of horseback riding on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 4 weeks of horseback riding on anxiety, depression, self esteem, attention, and learning disorder in children with ADHD.
Materials and Methods
Subjects comprised a convenience sample of 10 children aged 10–12 years with ADHD and 10 children without ADHD. Horseback riding sessions were performed 2 times (40 minutes/day) per week for 4 weeks. Before and after the horseback riding program, we measured the children’s anxiety, depression, self esteem, attention, and learning disorder. The pre-test and post-test scores were analyzed with repeated-measures analysis of variance.
After participating in the 4-week horseback riding program, anxiety (p = 0.013), depression (p = 0.007), attention (p < 0.001), and learning disorder (p < 0.001) were significantly improved in the ADHD group compared to the normal group. However, self esteem was not significantly different between the 2 groups (p = 0.096).
These results indicate that the 4-week horseback riding program used in this study was very effective for significantly improving anxiety, depression, and attention in children with ADHD.
anxiety, depression, self esteem, attention, attention deficit disorder, horseback riding therapy
Wi-Young So,So-Young Lee,Yoonjung Park,Dong-il Seo. EFFECTS OF 4 WEEKS OF HORSEBACK RIDING ON ANXIETY, DEPRESSION, AND SELF ESTEEM IN CHILDREN WITH ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER. Journal of Men's Health. 2017. 13(2);1-7.
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