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Original Research

Open Access


  • Seong Eon Kim1
  • Yong Chul Choi2
  • Ji Young Lee2

1Department of Physical Education, Sejong university, Seoul, Republic of Korea

2Department of Physical Education, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung-si, Republic of Korea

DOI: 10.22374/jomh.v15i4.178 Vol.15,Issue 4,November 2019 pp.58-66

Published: 01 November 2019

*Corresponding Author(s): Yong Chul Choi E-mail:
*Corresponding Author(s): Ji Young Lee E-mail:

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Background and objective

Hypertension (HTN) is a representative cardiovascular disease worldwide. This study aimed to inves-tigate the prevalence of HTN in middle age using cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), exercise habits, and obesity.

Material and methods

A total of 4835 middle-aged individuals (2783 men and 2052 women; age range: 40–59 years) were analyzed. The diagnostic criterion for HTN was blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg or current use of HTN medication. CRF was measured as VO2max by gas analysis. The exercise frequency was indicated as participant days per week. Obesity was assessed using waist circumference and body mass index (BMI). The odds ratio (OR) was determined by logistic regression analysis. The groups were divided by quar-tile and median and classified by sex. The significance level was set at a p-value <0.05.


The HTN OR in the highest CRF group decreased to 0.399 in men and 0.413 in women. The OR for exercise frequency decreased in the 5–7 days group by 0.428 in men and 0.488 in women than in the no-exercise group. The HTN OR in the normal BMI group decreased to 0.611 in men and 0.679 in women than in the obese group. The OR for waist circumference was 0.528 in men (≤89.9 cm) and 0.428 in women (≤84.9 cm). The OR of the high fitness-normal waist group was 0.244 in men and 0.191 in women. The OR of the low fitness-normal weight group was 0.872 in men and 0.766 in women (p<0.05), whereas that of the high fitness-overweight group was 0.561 in men and 0.582 in women (p<0.05).


The higher the exercise frequency and CRF and the lower the BMI and waist circumference, the lower the prevalence of HTN. The prevalence of HTN decreased significantly with higher CRF and lower waist circumference than with higher exercise frequency and lower BMI.


hypertension; cardiorespiratory fitness; body mass index; waist circumference; odds ratio

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