COVID-19 and androgenic status: testosterone or dihydrotestosterone have a pivotal role?
1Department of Urology and Andrology, Moscow Research and Education Center of the Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow, Russia
2Faculty of Fundamental Medicine, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow, Russia
3Department of Age-Associated Diseases, Moscow Research and Education Center of the Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow, Russia
4Cardiology Department, National Medical Research Centre for Therapy and Preventive Medicine, 119991 Moscow, Russia
5Laboratory Diagnostics Department, Moscow Research and Education Center of the Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow, Russia
6Radiology Department, Moscow Research and Education Center of the Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow, Russia
DOI: 10.22514/jomh.2023.006 Vol.19,Issue 1,January 2023 pp.33-42
Submitted: 13 August 2022 Accepted: 11 November 2022
Published: 30 January 2023
*Corresponding Author(s): Nesterova Olga E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The aim of our study is analysis of the androgenic status including testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in men hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and them relationship with the course of the disease. This is a monocentric prospective study performed on 125 male patients hospitalized for COVID-19. We conducted hematological examination, blood biochemical profile, hemostasis analysis and hormonal examination (T and DHT levels) lung and chest computed tomography and also assessed outcomes of hospitalization. Low DHT serum level was found only in 18 patients (14.4%). Subjects with low DHT were significantly older compare to subjects with normal DHT. At the same time in patients with normal DHT white blood cells (WBC) count, neutrophils at admission were higher than in patients with low DHT. No correlation was observed between T and DHT serum blood levels. C-reactive protein (CRP) has a weak positive correlation of DHT serum blood concentration (r = 0.22; p = 0.016). The inverse pattern was obtained for T serum blood concentration (r = −0.285; p = 0.001). After divided all males according to T concentrations we conducted next correlation analysis for DHT and CRP in two different groups: with normal T levels and with low T levels. We found that in males with normal T DHT levels are not correlated with CRP (r = 0.095; p = 0.462). However, in males with low T DHT and CRP had weak positive correlation with r = 0.317 (p = 0.012). Higher DHT concentrations are associated with higher CRP levels, however correlation is weak and in patients with normal T is absent, that may indicate anti-inflammatory effect of T and possible proinflammatory effect of DHT.
COVID-19; Testosterone; Dihydrotestosterone
Kamalov Аrmais,Mareev Viacheslav,Orlova Iana,Mareev Yury,Begrambekova Yulia,Pavlova Zukhra,Plisyk Alina,Samokhodskaya Larisa,Mershina Elena,Ohobotov Dmitry,Nesterova Olga,Strigunov Andrey,Tsurskaya Daria. COVID-19 and androgenic status: testosterone or dihydrotestosterone have a pivotal role?. Journal of Men's Health. 2023. 19(1);33-42.
 World Health Organization. World Health Organization Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). 2019. Available at: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019 (Accessed: 20 April 2022).
 Liu N, Zhang F, Wei C, Jia Y, Shang Z, Sun L, et al. Prevalence and predictors of PTSS during COVID-19 outbreak in China hardest-hit areas: Gender differences matter. Psychiatry Research. 2020; 287: 112921.
 Pijls BG, Jolani S, Atherley A, Derckx RT, Dijkstra JIR, Franssen GHL, et al. Demographic risk factors for COVID-19 infection, severity, ICU admission and death: a meta-analysis of 59 studies. BMJ Open. 2021; 11: e044640.
 Global Health 50/50, the African Population and Health Research Center and the International Center for Research on Women. The Sex, Gender and COVID-19 Project. 2022. Available at: https://globalhealth5050.org/the-sex-gender-and-covid-19- project/ (Accessed: 28 April 2022).
 Kumar A, Narayan RK, Kulandhasamy M, Prasoon P, Kumari C, Kumar S, et al. COVID-19 pandemic: insights into molecular mechanisms leading to sex-based differences in patient outcomes. Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine. 2021; 23: e7.
 Kumar N, Zuo Y, Yalavarthi S, Hunker KL, Knight JS, Kanthi Y, et al. SARS-CoV-2 spike protein s1-mediated endothelial injury and pro-inflammatory state is amplified by dihydrotestosterone and prevented by mineralocorticoid antagonism. Viruses. 2021; 13: 2209.
 Kamalov AA, Mareev VY, Orlova IA, Ohobotov DA, Mareev YV, Begrambekova YL, et al. Features of a new corOnavirUs infection course and optioNs therapy DEpending on the andRogenic status (FOUNDER): androgenic status in men with COVID-19 and its relationship with the disease severity. Urologiia. 2021; 6: 85–99.
 Lanser L, Burkert FR, Thommes L, Egger A, Hoermann G, Kaser S, et al. Testosterone deficiency is a risk factor for severe COVID-19. Frontiers in Endocrinology 2021; 12: 694083.
 Liao X, Wang B, Kang Y. Novel coronavirus infection during the 2019–2020 epidemic: preparing intensive care units—the experience in Sichuan Province, China. Intensive Care Medicine. 2020; 46: 357–360.
 Mareev VY, Orlova YA, Pavlikova EP, Matskeplishvili ST, Krasnova TN, Malahov PS, et al. Steroid pulse -therapy in patients with coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19), systemic inflammation and risk of venous thrombosis and thromboembolism (WAYFARER Study). Kardiologiia. 2020; 60: 15–29.
 Mareev VY, Orlova YA, Plisyk AG, Pavlikova EP, Matskeplishvili ST, Akopyan ZA, et al. Results of open-label non-randomized comparative clinical trial: “bromhexine and spironolactone for coronаvirus infection requiring hospitalization (BISCUIT). Kardiologiia. 2020; 60: 4–15.
 Nettleship JE, Pugh PJ, Channer KS, Jones T, Jones RD. Inverse relationship between serum levels of interleukin-1beta and testosterone in men with stable coronary artery disease. Hormone and Metabolic Research. 2007; 39: 366–371.
 Gornstein RA, Lapp CA, Bustos-Valdes SM, Zamorano P. Androgens modulate interleukin-6 production by gingival fibroblasts in vitro. Journal of Periodontology. 1999; 70: 604–609.
 Zurfluh S, Nickler M, Ottiger M, Steuer C, Kutz A, Christ-Crain M, et al. Dihydrotestosterone is a predictor for mortality in males with community-acquired pneumonia: results of a 6-year follow-up study. Respiratory Research. 2018; 19: 240.
 Sawant L, Thunuguntla P, Jones C. Cooperative activation of bovine herpesvirus 1 productive infection and viral regulatory promoters by androgen receptor and Krüppel-like transcription factors 4 and 15. Virology. 2021; 552: 63–72.
 Rezq S, Huffman AM, Basnet J, Yanes Cardozo LL, Romero DG. Cardiac and renal SARS-CoV-2 viral entry protein regulation by androgens and diet: implications for polycystic ovary syndrome and COVID-19. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22: 9746.
 Huffman AM, Rezq S, Basnet J, Yanes Cardozo LL, Romero DG. SARS-CoV-2 viral entry proteins in hyperandrogenemic female mice: implications for women with PCOS and COVID-19. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22: 4472.
 McConnell JD, Wilson JD, George FW, Geller J, Pappas F, Stoner E. Finasteride, an inhibitor of 5 alpha-reductase, suppresses prostatic dihydrotestosterone in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 1992; 74: 505–508.
 Zeckey C, Andruszkow H, Neunaber C, Frink M, Schirmer B, Mommsen P, et al. Protective effects of finasteride on the pulmonary immune response in a combined model of trauma-hemorrhage and polymicrobial sepsis in mice. Cytokine. 2011; 56: 305–311.
 Cadegiani FA, McCoy J, Gustavo Wambier C, Goren A. Early antiandrogen therapy with dutasteride reduces viral shedding, inflam-matory responses, and time-to-remission in males with COVID-19: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled interventional trial (EAT-DUTA AndroCoV Trial-Biochemical). Cureus. 2021; 13: e13047.
 Lyon M, Li J, Cullen J, Milinovich A, Kattan M, Jehi L, et al. 5α-reductase inhibitors are associated with reduced risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection: a matched-pair, registry-based analysis. The Journal of Urology. 2022; 207: 183–189.
 Schroeder M, Schaumburg B, Mueller Z, Parplys A, Jarczak D, Roedl K, et al. High estradiol and low testosterone levels are associated with critical illness in male but not in female COVID-19 patients: a retrospective cohort study. Emerging Microbes & Infections. 2021; 10: 1807–1818.
Vol., Issue , Invalid dateTable of contents
Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch) Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,200 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.
Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition aims to evaluate a journal’s value from multiple perspectives including the journal impact factor, descriptive data about a journal’s open access content as well as contributing authors, and provide readers a transparent and publisher-neutral data & statistics information about the journal.
Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) DOAJ is a unique and extensive index of diverse open access journals from around the world, driven by a growing community, committed to ensuring quality content is freely available online for everyone.
SCImago The SCImago Journal & Country Rank is a publicly available portal that includes the journals and country scientific indicators developed from the information contained in the Scopus® database (Elsevier B.V.)
Publication Forum - JUFO (Federation of Finnish Learned Societies) Publication Forum is a classification of publication channels created by the Finnish scientific community to support the quality assessment of academic research.
Scopus CiteScore 0.7 (2021) Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.
Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers Search for publication channels (journals, series and publishers) in the Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers to see if they are considered as scientific. (https://kanalregister.hkdir.no/publiseringskanaler/Forside).