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The post-activation performance enhancement effect of a parallel back squat on male jumping and sprinting athletes

  • Enrique Márquez1
  • Daniel Castillo1,*,
  • Alejandro Rodríguez-Fernández2
  • Marco Beato3
  • Javier Raya-González4

1REDAFLED Research Group, University of Valladolid, 42004 Soria, Spain

2VALFIS Research Group, Institute of Biomedicine (IBIOMED), University of Leon, 24004 Leon, Spain

3School of Health and Sports Science, University of Suffolk, IP4 1QJ Ipswich, UK

4Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Extremadura, 10003 Cáceres, Spain

DOI: 10.22514/jomh.2023.016 Vol.19,Issue 2,February 2023 pp.9-16

Submitted: 22 July 2022 Accepted: 18 October 2022

Published: 28 February 2023

*Corresponding Author(s): Daniel Castillo E-mail:


Although the literature has described different ways and methodologies of producing chronic neuromuscular enhancements in athletes, less is known about warm-up activities aiming to optimize short-term performance. To address these gaps, investigations into post-activation performance enhancement (PAPE) effects are necessary. As such, this work aimed to analyse the PAPE effect of different parallel squat (PS) protocols with and without whole-body vibration (WBV) employing different volumes (low and high) and rest periods (of one and four minutes) on jumping performance. Seventeen elite sprinting and jumping male athletes participated in this study. The athletes completed one PAPE protocol on a weekly basis, according to the following conditions: PS with 80% one-repetition maximum (1RM) without vibration (NV-PS) and with WBV (WBV-PS). Each exercise was performed at a high and low volume, and after short or long recovery periods (of one and four minutes). A countermovement jump (CMJ) and drop jump (DJ) without an arm swing were executed before and after each PAPE protocol. Higher CMJ and DJ performances after WBV-PS exercises were found (effect size (ES) = 1.065–1.319, large). Greater DJ results were observed after an NV-PS exercise with a high volume and four minutes of rest (37.78 ± 5.44 vs. 39.09 ± 5.62; p = 0.011; ES = 0.692, medium). Time x condition effects (F = 25.239, p < 0.01, η2 = 0.03) were observed, revealing higher CMJ values after a WBV-PS in comparison to baseline conditions, as well as higher DJ values after NV-PS and WBV-PS in comparison to baseline conditions. The findings indicate that these types of PAPE protocols in elite male athletes and WBV-PS PAPE protocols in particular can enhance CMJ and DJ performance, while the NV-PS (using a high volume and four minutes of rest) resulted in improvements for the DJ. No other improvements were reported using NV-PS combinations.


Athletics; Nuromuscular; Activation; Whole-body vibration

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Enrique Márquez,Daniel Castillo,Alejandro Rodríguez-Fernández,Marco Beato,Javier Raya-González. The post-activation performance enhancement effect of a parallel back squat on male jumping and sprinting athletes. Journal of Men's Health. 2023. 19(2);9-16.


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