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Effect of restorative experience in reducing the risk perception of COVID-19 infection: Korean male campers' well-being and willingness to pay a premium for camping

  • Sooyoung Choi1,†
  • Nuri Choi1,†
  • Insin Kim1,*,†,

1Department of Tourism and Convention, Pusan National University, 46241 Busan, Republic of Korea

DOI: 10.22514/jomh.2023.033 Vol.19,Issue 4,April 2023 pp.26-39

Submitted: 14 August 2022 Accepted: 19 January 2023

Published: 30 April 2023

*Corresponding Author(s): Insin Kim E-mail:

† These authors contributed equally.


During the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, South Korean men exhibited greater affective risk perceptions than women, displaying anxiety and fear of COVID-19 infection as well as emotional distress. Such negative psychological states can be reduced through exposure to natural environments. Natural settings often provide restorative environments promoting individual mental health, psychological stability, and well-being. Therefore, this study aims to examine the roles of restorativeness as perceived by men in mitigating the affective risk perception of COVID-19, improving well-being, and increasing the willingness to pay a premium to camp in the context of nature-based camping. An online survey was conducted with South Korean men who experienced camping during the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 208 responses were used for data analysis. The results of structural equation modeling indicated significant relationships between affective risk perception and perceived restorativeness, perceived restorativeness and well-being, and well-being and willingness-to-pay-a-premium. The mediating effect of well-being was also significant. The findings of a multi-group analysis indicated a significant moderating effect of having children on the relationship between perceived restorativeness and well-being, but not on the relationship between well-being and willingness-to-pay-a-premium. The results of this study provide enhanced insight into restorative experiences in nature as a coping mechanism for increased affective risks as perceived by men during the pandemic. In particular, this study examined the psychological benefits of a natural environment in the context of camping and empirically identified the role of camping in promoting a feeling of restorativeness and inducing men’s well-being perception by easing negative emotions. This study also provides practitioners with an understanding of changes in men’s perceptions and emotional and behavioral responses through positive restorative experiences.


COVID-19; Affective risk perception; Perceived restorativeness; Well-being; Willingness-to-pay-a-premium; Camping; South Korean men

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Sooyoung Choi,Nuri Choi,Insin Kim. Effect of restorative experience in reducing the risk perception of COVID-19 infection: Korean male campers' well-being and willingness to pay a premium for camping. Journal of Men's Health. 2023. 19(4);26-39.


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