Article Data

  • Views 357
  • Dowloads 162

Original Research

Open Access

Effect of restorative experience in reducing the risk perception of COVID-19 infection: Korean male campers' well-being and willingness to pay a premium for camping

  • Sooyoung Choi1,†
  • Nuri Choi1,†
  • Insin Kim1,*,†,

1Department of Tourism and Convention, Pusan National University, 46241 Busan, Republic of Korea

DOI: 10.22514/jomh.2023.033 Vol.19,Issue 4,April 2023 pp.26-39

Submitted: 14 August 2022 Accepted: 19 January 2023

Published: 30 April 2023

*Corresponding Author(s): Insin Kim E-mail:

† These authors contributed equally.


During the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, South Korean men exhibited greater affective risk perceptions than women, displaying anxiety and fear of COVID-19 infection as well as emotional distress. Such negative psychological states can be reduced through exposure to natural environments. Natural settings often provide restorative environments promoting individual mental health, psychological stability, and well-being. Therefore, this study aims to examine the roles of restorativeness as perceived by men in mitigating the affective risk perception of COVID-19, improving well-being, and increasing the willingness to pay a premium to camp in the context of nature-based camping. An online survey was conducted with South Korean men who experienced camping during the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 208 responses were used for data analysis. The results of structural equation modeling indicated significant relationships between affective risk perception and perceived restorativeness, perceived restorativeness and well-being, and well-being and willingness-to-pay-a-premium. The mediating effect of well-being was also significant. The findings of a multi-group analysis indicated a significant moderating effect of having children on the relationship between perceived restorativeness and well-being, but not on the relationship between well-being and willingness-to-pay-a-premium. The results of this study provide enhanced insight into restorative experiences in nature as a coping mechanism for increased affective risks as perceived by men during the pandemic. In particular, this study examined the psychological benefits of a natural environment in the context of camping and empirically identified the role of camping in promoting a feeling of restorativeness and inducing men’s well-being perception by easing negative emotions. This study also provides practitioners with an understanding of changes in men’s perceptions and emotional and behavioral responses through positive restorative experiences.


COVID-19; Affective risk perception; Perceived restorativeness; Well-being; Willingness-to-pay-a-premium; Camping; South Korean men

Cite and Share

Sooyoung Choi,Nuri Choi,Insin Kim. Effect of restorative experience in reducing the risk perception of COVID-19 infection: Korean male campers' well-being and willingness to pay a premium for camping. Journal of Men's Health. 2023. 19(4);26-39.


[1] Kim YJ, Kang SW. Perceived crowding and risk perception according to leisure activity type during COVID-19 using spatial proximity. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18: 457.

[2] Bae SY, Chang P-J. The effect of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) risk perception on behavioural intention towards ‘untact’ tourism in South Korea during the first wave of the pandemic (March 2020). Current Issues in Tourism. 2020; 24: 1017–1035.

[3] Park I-J, Kim J, Kim S, Lee JC, Giroux M. Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on travelers’ preference for crowded versus non-crowded options. Tourism Management. 2021; 87: 104398–104413.

[4] Kim JJ, Han H, Ariza-Montes A. The impact of hotel attributes, well-being perception, and attitudes on brand loyalty: examining the moderating role of COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services. 2021; 62: 102634–102643.

[5] Samuelsson K, Barthel S, Giusti M, Hartig T. Visiting nearby natural settings supported wellbeing during Sweden’s “soft-touch” pandemic restrictions. Landscape and Urban Planning. 2021; 214: 104176.

[6] Kothari R, Sparrow J, Henshall J, Buchan D, Kemp J, Owen A, et al. Locked up and locked down: how the Covid-19 pandemic has impacted the mental health of male prisoners and support staff. Journal of Men’s Health. 2022; 18: 141.

[7] Kim Y, Kim E. Depression among Korean men during COVID-19: social media and physical activity. Journal of Men’s Health. 2022; 18: 068.

[8] Ahorsu DK, Lin C-Y, Imani V, Saffari M, Griffiths MD, Pakpour AH. The fear of COVID-19 scale: development and initial validation. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. 2020; 20: 1537–1545.

[9] Korea Health Promotion Institute. 40.7% of Koreans “experienced depression and anxiety due to COVID-19”. 2020. Available at: menuId=MENU00907 (Accessed: 03 August 2022).

[10] Korea Health Promotion Institute. After a gradual recovery, one in two adults has changed their drinking habits, and depression is still high. 2021. Available at: MENU00907&schType=0&schText=&searchType=&boardStyle= &categoryId=&continent=&country=&contents1= (Accessed: 03 August 2022).

[11] Ministry of Health and Welfare. Announcement of the results of the COVID-19 national mental health survey in the first quarter of 2021. 2021. Available at: 365582&page=1 (Accessed: 03 August 2022).

[12] Czeisler ME, Lane RI, Petrosky E, Wiley JF, Christensen A, Njai R, et al. Mental health, substance use, and suicidal ideation during the COVID-19 pandemic—United States, June 24–30, 2020. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2020; 69: 1049–1057.

[13] Gottert A, Shattuck D, Pulerwitz J, Betron M, McLarnon C, Wilkins JD, et al. Meeting men’s mental health needs during COVID-19 and beyond: a global health imperative. BMJ Global Health. 2022; 7: e008297–e008299.

[14] Ahmed MZ, Ahmed O, Aibao Z, Hanbin S, Siyu L, Ahmad A. Epidemic of COVID-19 in China and associated psychological problems. Asian Journal of Psychiatry. 2020; 51: 102092.

[15] Rania N, Coppola I. Psychological impact of the lockdown in Italy due to the COVID-19 outbreak: are there gender differences? Frontiers in Psychology. 2021; 12: 567470.

[16] Casagrande M, Favieri F, Tambelli R, Forte G. The enemy who sealed the world: effects quarantine due to the COVID-19 on sleep quality, anxiety, and psychological distress in the Italian population. Sleep Medicine. 2020; 75: 12–20.

[17] Wang Y, Di Y, Ye J, Wei W. Study on the public psychological states and its related factors during the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in some regions of China. Psychology, Health & Medicine. 2021; 26: 13–22.

[18] Clark A, Jit M, Warren-Gash C, Guthrie B, Wang HHX, Mercer SW, et al. Global, regional, and national estimates of the population at increased risk of severe COVID-19 due to underlying health conditions in 2020: a modelling study. The Lancet Global Health. 2020; 8: e1003–e1017.

[19] Brownhill S, Wilhelm K, Barclay L, Schmied V. ‘Big build’: hidden depression in men. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 2005; 39: 921–931.

[20] Choi S, Kim I. Sustainability of nature walking trails: predicting walking tourists’ engagement in pro-environmental behaviors. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research. 2021; 26: 748–767.

[21] Zorlu K, Tuncer M, Taşkın GA. The effect of COVID-19 on tourists’ attitudes and travel intentions: an empirical study on camping/glamping tourism in Turkey during COVID-19. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights. 2022. [Preprint].

[22] Craig CA. Camping, glamping, and coronavirus in the United States. Annals of Tourism Research. 2021; 89: 103071.

[23] Kampgrounds of America. The 2022 annual North American camping report. 2022. Available at: (Accessed: 06 August 2022).

[24] Kampgrounds of America. The 2021 annual North American camping report. 2021. Available at: (Accessed: 06 August 2022).

[25] Kaplan R, Kaplan S. The experience of nature: a psychological perspective. 1st edn. Cambridge University Press: New York, NY. 1989.

[26] Kaplan S. The restorative benefits of nature: toward an integrative framework. Journal of Environmental Psychology. 1995; 15: 169–182.

[27] Berto R. Exposure to restorative environments helps restore attentional capacity. Journal of Environmental Psychology. 2005; 25: 249–259.

[28] Jiang J, Zhang J, Zhang H, Yan B. Natural soundscapes and tourist loyalty to nature-based tourism destinations: the mediating effect of tourist satisfaction. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing. 2018; 35: 218–230.

[29] Velarde MD, Fry G, Tveit M. Health effects of viewing landscapes: landscape types in environmental psychology. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening. 2007; 6: 199–212.

[30] Bratman GN, Daily GC, Levy BJ, Gross JJ. The benefits of nature experience: improved affect and cognition. Landscape and Urban Planning. 2015; 138: 41–50.

[31] Windhorst E, Williams A. “It’s like a different world”: natural places, post-secondary students, and mental health. Health Place. 2015; 34: 241–250.

[32] Bimonte S, Faralla V. Happiness and nature-based vacations. Annals of Tourism Research. 2014; 46: 176–178.

[33] Hansson SO. Risk. 2018. Available at: https://plato.stanford. edu/archives/fall2018/entries/risk/ (Accessed: 07 December 2022).

[34] Renn O. Risk perception and communication: lessons for the food and food packaging industry. Food Additives and Contaminants. 2005; 22: 1061–1071.

[35] Knight FH. Risk, uncertainty and profit. 1st edn. Houghton Mifflin: Boston, MA. 1921.

[36] Williams AM, Chen JL, Li G, Baláž V. Risk, uncertainty and ambiguity amid Covid-19: a multi-national analysis of international travel intentions. Annals of Tourism Research. 2022; 92: 103346.

[37] Slovic P. Perception of Risk. Science. 1987; 236: 280–285.

[38] Brug J, Aro AR, Oenema A, de Zwart O, Richardus JH, Bishop GD. SARS risk perception, knowledge, precautions, and information sources, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004; 10: 1486–1489.

[39] Chew EYT, Jahari SA. Destination image as a mediator between perceived risks and revisit intention: a case of post-disaster Japan. Tourism Management. 2014; 40: 382–393.

[40] Reisinger Y, Mavondo F. Travel anxiety and intentions to travel internationally: implications of travel risk perception. Journal of Travel Research. 2005; 43: 212–225.

[41] Slovic P, Finucane ML, Peters E, MacGregor DG. Risk as analysis and risk as feelings: some thoughts about affect, reason, risk, and rationality. Risk Analysis. 2004; 24: 311–322.

[42] Slovic P, Peters E. Risk perception and affect. Current Directions in Psychological Science. 2006; 15: 322–325.

[43] Oh S, Paek H, Hove T. Cognitive and emotional dimensions of perceived risk characteristics, genre-specific media effects, and risk perceptions: the case of H1N1 influenza in South Korea. Asian Journal of Communication. 2015; 25: 14–32.

[44] Shim M, You M. Cognitive and affective risk perceptions toward food safety outbreaks: mediating the relation between news use and food consumption intention. Asian Journal of Communication. 2015; 25: 48–64.

[45] Sjoberg L. Worry and risk perception. Risk Analysis. 1998; 18: 85–93.

[46] Portnoy DB, Kaufman AR, Klein WM, Doyle TA, de Groot M. Cognitive and affective perceptions of vulnerability as predictors of exercise intentions among people with type 2 diabetes. Journal of Risk Research. 2014; 17: 177–193.

[47] Dillard AJ, Ferrer RA, Ubel PA, Fagerlin A. Risk perception measures’ associations with behavior intentions, affect, and cognition following colon cancer screening messages. Health Psychology. 2012; 31: 106–113.

[48] Loewenstein GF, Weber EU, Hsee CK, Welch N. Risk as feelings. Psychological Bulletin. 2001; 127: 267–286.

[49] Ferrer RA, Klein WMP, Persoskie A, Avishai-Yitshak A, Sheeran P. The tripartite model of risk perception (TRIRISK): distinguishing deliberative, affective, and experiential components of perceived risk. Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 2016; 50: 653–663.

[50] Wilson RS, Zwickle A, Walpole H. Developing a broadly applicable measure of risk perception. Risk Analysis. 2019; 39: 777–791.

[51] Rittichainuwat BN, Chakraborty G. Perceived travel risks regarding terrorism and disease: the case of Thailand. Tourism Management. 2009; 30: 410–418.

[52] Yang CL, Nair V. Risk perception study in tourism: are we really measuring perceived risk? Procedia—Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2014; 144: 322–327.

[53] Lepp A, Gibson H, Lane C. Image and perceived risk: a study of Uganda and its official tourism website. Tourism Management. 2011; 32: 675–684.

[54] Huang X, Dai S, Xu H. Predicting tourists’ health risk preventative behaviour and travelling satisfaction in Tibet: combining the theory of planned behaviour and health belief model. Tourism Management Perspectives. 2020; 33: 100589.

[55] Lee C, Song H, Bendle LJ, Kim M, Han H. The impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions for 2009 H1N1 influenza on travel inten-tions: a model of goal-directed behavior. Tourism Management. 2012; 33: 89–99.

[56] Zhu H, Deng F. How to influence rural tourism intention by risk knowledge during COVID-19 containment in China: mediating role of risk perception and attitude. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17: 3514–3534.

[57] Scopelliti M, Carrus G, Bonaiuto M. Is it really nature that restores people? A comparison with historical sites with high restorative potential. Frontiers in Psychology. 2019; 9: 1–12.

[58] Hartig T, Korpela K, Evans GW, Gärling T. A measure of restorative quality in environments. Scandinavian Housing and Planning Research. 1997; 14: 175–194.

[59] Moran D. Back to nature? Attention restoration theory and the restorative effects of nature contact in prison. Health & Place. 2019; 57: 35–43.

[60] Fong KC, Hart JE, James P. A review of epidemiologic studies on greenness and health: updated literature through 2017. Current Environmental Health Reports. 2018; 5: 77–87.

[61] Venter ZS, Barton DN, Gundersen V, Figari H, Nowell M. Urban nature in a time of crisis: recreational use of green space increases during the COVID-19 outbreak in Oslo, Norway. Environmental Research Letters. 2020; 15: 104075–104085.

[62] Olafsdottir G, Cloke P, Schulz A, van Dyck Z, Eysteinsson T, Thor-leifsdottir B, et al. Health benefits of walking in nature: a randomized controlled study under conditions of real-life stress. Environment and Behavior. 2020; 52: 248–274.

[63] Io M-U, Peralta RL. Emotional well-being impact on travel motivation and intention of outbound vacationers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Leisure/Loisir. 2022; 2022: 1–25.

[64] Wolsko C, Lindberg K, Reese R. Nature-based physical recreation leads to psychological well-being: evidence from five studies. Ecopsychology. 2019; 11: 222–235.

[65] Kim H, Lee S, Uysal M, Kim J, Ahn K. Nature-based tourism: motivation and subjective well-being. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing. 2015; 32: S76–S96.

[66] World Health Organizations. Promoting well-being. 2022. Available at: (Accessed: 28 July 2022).

[67] Sirgy MJ, Uysal M, Kruger S. Towards a benefits theory of leisure well-being. Applied Research in Quality of Life. 2017; 12: 205–228.

[68] Diener E. Assessing subjective well-being: progress and opportunities. Social Indicators Research. 1994; 31: 103–157.

[69] Ryff CD, Keyes CLM. The structure of psychological well-being revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1995; 69: 719–727.

[70] Deci EL, Ryan RM. The “What” and “Why” of goal pursuits: human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry. 2000; 11: 227–268.

[71] Grzeskowiak S, Sirgy MJ. Consumer well-being (CWB): the effects of self-image congruence, brand-community belongingness, brand loyalty, and consumption recency. Applied Research in Quality of Life. 2007; 2: 289–304.

[72] Kim I, Jeon SM., Hyun SS. Chain restaurant patrons’ well-being perception and dining intentions. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. 2012; 24: 402–429.

[73] Bi Y, Yin J, Kim I. Fostering a young audience’s media-induced travel intentions: the role of parasocial interactions. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management. 2021; 47: 398–407.

[74] Ryan RM, Deci EL. On happiness and human potentials: a review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Annual Review of Psychology. 2001; 52: 141–166.

[75] Sirgy MJ. Promoting quality-of-life and well-being research in hospitality and tourism. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing. 2019; 36: 1–13.

[76] Knobloch U, Robertson K, Aitken R. Experience, emotion, and eudaimonia: a consideration of tourist experiences and well-being. Journal of Travel Research. 2017; 56: 651–662.

[77] Newman DB, Tay L, Diener E. Leisure and subjective well-being: a model of psychological mechanisms as mediating factors. Journal of Happiness Studies. 2014; 15: 555–578.

[78] Woo E, Kim H, Uysal M. A measure of quality of life in elderly tourists. Applied Research in Quality of Life. 2016; 11: 65–82.

[79] Homburg C, Koschate N, Hoyer WD. Do satisfied customers really pay more? a study of the relationship between customer satisfaction and willingness to pay. Journal of Marketing. 2005; 69: 84–96.

[80] Choi S, Kim JJ, Choe Y, Hyun S, Kim I. Modeling the role of luxury air-travelers’ self-enhancement. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing. 2020; 37: 200–216.

[81] Lee E. Do tech products have a beauty premium? the effect of visual aesthetics of wearables on willingness-to-pay premium and the role of product category involvement. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services. 2022; 65: 102872.

[82] Netemeyer RG, Krishnan B, Pullig C, Wang G, Yagci M, Dean D, et al. Developing and validating measures of facets of customer-based brand equity. Journal of Business Research. 2004; 57: 209–224.

[83] Namkung Y, Jang S (Shawn). Are consumers willing to pay more for green practices at restaurants? Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research. 2017; 41: 329–356.

[84] Clarkson JJ, Janiszewski C, Cinelli MD. The desire for consumption knowledge. Journal of Consumer Research. 2013; 39: 1313–1329.

[85] Dwivedi A, Nayeem T, Murshed F. Brand experience and consumers’ willingness-to-pay (WTP) a price premium: mediating role of brand credibility and perceived uniqueness. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services. 2018; 44: 100–107.

[86] Kim JJ, Hwang J. Merging the norm activation model and the theory of planned behavior in the context of drone food delivery services: Does the level of product knowledge really matter? Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management. 2020; 42: 1–11.

[87] Hwang J, Choi J. An investigation of passengers’ psychological benefits from green brands in an environmentally friendly airline context: the moderating role of gender. Sustainability. 2017; 10: 80–96.

[88] Hwang J, Kim H (Markham), Kim JJ, Kim I. Investigation of perceived risks and their outcome variables in the context of robotic restaurants. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing. 2021; 38: 263–281.

[89] Kiatkawsin K, Han H. What drives customers’ willingness to pay price premiums for luxury gastronomic experiences at michelin-starred restaurants? International Journal of Hospitality Management. 2019; 82: 209–219.

[90] Kim H, Woo E, Uysal M. Tourism experience and quality of life among elderly tourists. Tourism Management. 2015; 46: 465–476.

[91] Eluwole KK, Banga C, Lasisi TT, Ozturen A, Kiliç H. Understanding res-idents’ empowerment and community attachment in festival tourism: the case of victoria falls. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management. 2022; 23: 100674–100684.

[92] Hwang J, Lee J (Jay). A strategy for enhancing senior tourists’ well-being perception: focusing on the experience economy. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing. 2019; 36: 314–329.

[93] Kim JJ, Nam M, Kim I. The effect of trust on value on travel websites: enhancing well-being and word-of-mouth among the elderly. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing. 2019; 36: 76–89.

[94] Kim I, Kim JJ. Older adults’ parasocial interaction formation process in the context of travel websites: the moderating role of parent-child geographic proximity. Tourism Management. 2017; 63: 399–416.

[95] Han H, Lee J, Koo B. Impact of green atmospherics on guest and employee well-being response, place dependence, and behavior in the luxury hotel sector. Journal of Sustainable Tourism. 2021; 29: 1613–1634.

[96] Leonidou LC, Coudounaris DN, Kvasova O, Christodoulides P. Drivers and outcomes of green tourist attitudes and behavior: sociodemographic moderating effects. Psychology & Marketing. 2015; 32: 635–650.

[97] Hwang J, Lee JS, Kim H. Perceived innovativeness of drone food delivery services and its impacts on attitude and behavioral intentions: The moderating role of gender and age. International Journal of Hospitality Management. 2019; 81: 94–103.

[98] Ferrín M. Reassessing gender differences in COVID-19 risk perception and behavior. Social Science Quarterly. 2022; 103: 31–41.

[99] Willekens M, Lievens J. Who participates and how much? Explaining non-attendance and the frequency of attending arts and heritage activities. Poetics. 2016; 56: 50–63.

[100] Kraaykamp G, van Gils W, Ultee W. Cultural participation and time restrictions. Poetics. 2008; 36: 316–332.

[101] Lee YG, Bhargava V. Leisure time: do married and single individuals spend it differently? Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal. 2004; 32: 254–274.

[102] Koh D, Lim MK, Chia SE, Ko SM, Qian F, Ng V, et al. Risk perception and impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) on work and personal lives of healthcare workers in Singapore. Medical Care. 2005; 43: 676–682.

[103] Churchill GA. A paradigm for developing better measures of marketing constructs. Journal of Marketing Research. 1979; 16: 64–73.

[104] IBM Corp. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 24.0. Armonk, NY, USA. 2016.

[105] Anderson JC, Gerbing DW. Structural equation modeling in practice: a review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin. 1988; 103: 411–423.

[106] Hair JF, Jr., Black WC, Babin BJ, Anderson RE. Multivariate data analysis: a global perspective. 6th edn. Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River, NJ. 2010.

[107] Nunnally JC. Psychometric theory. 2nd edn. McGraw-Hill: New York, NY. 1978.

[108] Bagozzi RP, Yi Y. On the evaluation of structural equation models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. 1988; 16: 74–94.

[109] Fornell C, Larcker DF. Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research. 1981; 18: 39–50.

[110] Henseler J, Ringle CM, Sarstedt M. A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. 2015; 43: 115–135.

[111] Voorhees CM, Brady MK, Calantone R, Ramirez E. Discriminant validity testing in marketing: an analysis, causes for concern, and proposed remedies. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. 2016; 44: 119–134.

[112] Byrne BM. Structural equation modeling with AMOS: basic concepts, applications, and programming. 1st edn. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Mahwah, NJ. 2001.

[113] Han H, Hyun SS. Green indoor and outdoor environment as nature-based solution and its role in increasing customer/employee mental health, well-being, and loyalty. Business Strategy and the Environment. 2019; 28: 629–641.

[114] Hartig T, Staats H. The need for psychological restoration as a determinant of environmental preferences. Journal of Environmental Psychology. 2006; 26: 215–226.

[115] Marselle MR, Irvine KN, Lorenzo-Arribas A, Warber SL. Does perceived restorativeness mediate the effects of perceived biodiversity and perceived naturalness on emotional well-being following group walks in nature? Journal of Environmental Psychology. 2016; 46: 217–232.

[116] Yu J. Verification of the role of the experiential value of luxury cruises in terms of price premium. Sustainability. 2019; 11: 3219–3233.

[117] World Health Organizations. Multi-country monkeypox outbreak: Situation update. 2022. Available at: (Accessed: 02 August 2022).

[118] Craig CA, Karabas I. Glamping after the coronavirus pandemic. Tourism and Hospitality Research. 2021; 21: 251–256.

[119] Kim JJ, Kim I, Hwang J. A change of perceived innovativeness for contactless food delivery services using drones after the outbreak of COVID-19. International Journal of Hospitality Management. 2021; 93: 102758.

[120] Kim I, Kim JJ. Emotional attachment, age and online travel community behaviour: the role of parasocial interaction. Current Issues in Tourism. 2021; 24: 3466–3488.

Abstracted / indexed in

Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch) Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,200 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.

Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition aims to evaluate a journal’s value from multiple perspectives including the journal impact factor, descriptive data about a journal’s open access content as well as contributing authors, and provide readers a transparent and publisher-neutral data & statistics information about the journal.

Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) DOAJ is a unique and extensive index of diverse open access journals from around the world, driven by a growing community, committed to ensuring quality content is freely available online for everyone.

SCImago The SCImago Journal & Country Rank is a publicly available portal that includes the journals and country scientific indicators developed from the information contained in the Scopus® database (Elsevier B.V.)

Publication Forum - JUFO (Federation of Finnish Learned Societies) Publication Forum is a classification of publication channels created by the Finnish scientific community to support the quality assessment of academic research.

Scopus CiteScore 0.7 (2021) Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.

Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers Search for publication channels (journals, series and publishers) in the Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers to see if they are considered as scientific. (

Submission Turnaround Time