Correlative study on retinal microvascular changes and sex hormones in male patients with central serous chorioretinopathy
1Department of Ophthalmology, Hangzhou Lin’an District the First People’s Hospital, 311300 Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China
2Department of Dermatology and Venereal Diseases, Hangzhou Lin’an District the First People’s Hospital, 311300 Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China
DOI: 10.22514/jomh.2023.058 Vol.19,Issue 7,July 2023 pp.71-76
Submitted: 28 February 2023 Accepted: 18 April 2023
Published: 30 July 2023
Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) is a disease in which the outer retinal barrier is damaged with high incidence in young adult males. We aimed to analyze the correlations between retinal microvascular changes and sex hormone levels. The vascular density of the superficial retinal capillary plexus (SCP), deep retinal capillary plexus (DCP), foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area, choriocapillary blood flow area, and the subfoveal choroidal thickness (SCT) were investigated by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). We also determined the levels of sex hormones (adrenaline (AD), norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), corticosteroids (Cor), aldosterone (ALD), estradiol (E2) and total testosterone (TT)). The relationship between sex hormone levels and OCTA parameters was then determined. We detected significantly higher levels of NE, Cor and TT in serum from the observation group than in the control group (p < 0.05). Significant correlations were identified between SCT and choriocapillary blood flow area in the affected eyes, contralateral eyes and healthy eyes in the control group (p < 0.05). SCT levels of both eyes in the observation group were higher and the choriocapillary blood flow area was smaller than in the control group. The SCT in affected eyes from the observation group were higher than the contralateral eyes (p < 0.05). The choriocapillary blood flow area was significantly smaller than in the contralateral eyes (p < 0.05). Correlation analysis unveiled that NE, Cor and TT levels were positively correlated with SCT in CSC patients and negatively correlated with choriocapillary blood flow area (p < 0.05). The serum levels of sex hormone levels in male CSC patients were different from those in healthy men of the same age. Our findings suggest that the serum levels of NE, Cor and TT levels may influence the pathogenesis of CSC by affecting SCT thickness and choriocapillary blood flow.
Male; Central serous chorioretinopathy; Optical coherence tomography angiography; Sex hormones; Retinal microvascular changes
Mingliang Wang,Yuanyuan Ren,Huifen Zheng,Jiwei Zhang,Xianbo Zhou. Correlative study on retinal microvascular changes and sex hormones in male patients with central serous chorioretinopathy. Journal of Men's Health. 2023. 19(7);71-76.
 Rugo HS. Continuing advancements in breast cancer care unraveling the data from the 2020 San Antonio breast cancer symposium. Oncology. 2021; 35: 11–13.
 Siwiec-Prościńska J, Prościnski T, Kociecki J, Pecold K. Central serous choroidoretinopathy—the characteristics of the clinical picture and the evaluation of the influence of general conditions at the prognosis and the course of the disease. Metaanalysis. Klin Oczna. 2009; 111: 258–262. (In Polish)
 Yu S, Park J, Kim K, Kang M, Kim E. Central serous chorioretinopathy: treatment. Taiwan Journal of Ophthalmology. 2022; 12: 394.
 Entezari M, Ramezani A, Yaseri M. Intravitreal bevacizumab for treatment of refractory central serous choroidoretinopathy. Korean Journal of Ophthalmology. 2012; 26: 139.
 Wali UK, Al-Kharousi N, Hamood H. Photodynamic therapy with verteporfin for chronic central serous choroidoretinopathy and idiopathic choroidal neovascularization—first report from the sultanate of oman. Oman Medical Journal. 2008; 23: 282–286.
 Kanda P, Gupta A, Gottlieb C, Karanjia R, Coupland SG, Bal MS. Pathophysiology of central serous chorioretinopathy: a literature review with quality assessment. Eye. 2022; 36: 941–962.
 Spaide RF, Gemmy Cheung CM, Matsumoto H, Kishi S, Boon CJF, van Dijk EHC, et al. Venous overload choroidopathy: a hypothetical framework for central serous chorioretinopathy and allied disorders. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research. 2022; 86: 100973.
 Lu B, Chao G, Xie L. Optical coherence tomography angiography in retinitis pigmentosa: a narrative review. Medicine. 2022; 101: e30068.
 Borrelli E, Battista M, Sacconi R, Querques G, Bandello F. Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetes. Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology. 2021; 10: 20–25.
 Müller P, Pfau M, Schmitz-Valckenberg S, Fleckenstein M, Holz F. Optical coherence tomography-angiography in geographic atrophy. Ophthalmologica. 2021; 244: 42–50.
 Association WM. World medical association declaration of Helsinki. Ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2001; 79: 373.
 Jain M, Mohan S, van Dijk EC. Central serous chorioretinopathy: pathophysiology, systemic associations, and a novel etiological classification. Taiwan Journal of Ophthalmology. 2022; 12: 381.
 Kaye R, Chandra S, Sheth J, Boon CJF, Sivaprasad S, Lotery A. Central serous chorioretinopathy: an update on risk factors, pathophysiology and imaging modalities. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research. 2020; 79: 100865.
 Battaglia Parodi M, Arrigo A, Iacono P, Falcomatà B, Bandello F. Central serous chorioretinopathy: treatment with laser. Pharmaceuticals. 2020; 13: 359.
 Lei C, Hua R, Duan J, Zhang M. Retinal pigment epithelium aperture in acute central serous chorioretinopathy: another novel possible pathological mechanism. European Journal of Ophthalmology. 2022; 32: NP103–NP108.
 Chronopoulos A, Kakkassery V, Strobel MA, Fornoff L, Hattenbach L. The significance of pigment epithelial detachment in central serous chorioretinopathy. European Journal of Ophthalmology. 2021; 31: 556–565.
 Jeon SH, Kim M, Lee J, Roh Y. The effect of selective retina therapy for bevacizumab-resistant chronic central serous chorioretinopathy. Ophthalmologica. 2022; 245: 91–100.
 Goel N, Mehta A, Gupta A. Multifocal electroretinography-assisted anatomical and functional evaluation of subthreshold green laser in acute central serous chorioretinopathy. Indian Journal of Ophthalmology. 2021; 69: 2341.
 Pichi F, Hay S. Use of optical coherence tomography angiography in the uveitis clinic. Graefe’S Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology. 2023; 261: 23–36.
 Coffey AM, Hutton EK, Combe L, Bhindi P, Gertig D, Constable PA. Optical coherence tomography angiography in primary eye care. Clinical and Experimental Optometry. 2021; 104: 3–13.
 Brinks J, van Dijk EHC, Tsonaka R, Meijer OC, Boon CJF. Sex hormones in males and females with active central serous chorioretinopathy. Ophthalmologica. 2022; 245: 555–562.
 Singh SR, Iovino C, Zur D, Masarwa D, Iglicki M, Gujar R, et al. Central serous chorioretinopathy imaging biomarkers. British Journal of Ophthalmology. 2022; 106: 553–558.
 Zeng Q, Yao Y, Li S, Yang Z, Qu J, Zhao M. Comparison of swept-source OCTA and indocyanine green angiography in central serous chorioretinopathy. BMC Ophthalmol. 2022; 22: 380.
 Schellevis RL, Altay L, Kalisingh A, Mulders TWF, Sitnilska V, Hoyng CB, et al. Elevated steroid hormone levels in active chronic central serous chorioretinopathy. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. 2019; 60: 3407.
 Ulaş F, Uyar E, Tekçe H, Çelebi S. Can hypothyroidism cause acute central serous chorioretinopathy? Seminars in Ophthalmology. 2019; 34: 533–540.
 Zhao C, Huang Y, Chen L, Ye S, Liu XQ. The association between circulating sex hormones and central serous chorioretinopathy: a case-control study. Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management. 2022; 18: 855–865.
 Chang YS, Weng SF, Wang JJ, Jan RL. Temporal association between topical ophthalmic corticosteroid and the risk of central serous chori-oretinopathy. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17: 9455.
 Çiloğlu E, Unal F, Dogan NC. The relationship between the central serous chorioretinopathy, choroidal thickness, and serum hormone levels. Graefe’S Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology. 2018; 256: 1111–1116.
 Nudleman E, Witmer MT, Kiss S, Williams GA, Wolfe JD. Central serous chorioretinopathy in patients receiving exogenous testosterone therapy. Retina. 2014; 34: 2128–2132.
Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch) Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,200 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.
Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition aims to evaluate a journal’s value from multiple perspectives including the journal impact factor, descriptive data about a journal’s open access content as well as contributing authors, and provide readers a transparent and publisher-neutral data & statistics information about the journal.
Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) DOAJ is a unique and extensive index of diverse open access journals from around the world, driven by a growing community, committed to ensuring quality content is freely available online for everyone.
SCImago The SCImago Journal & Country Rank is a publicly available portal that includes the journals and country scientific indicators developed from the information contained in the Scopus® database (Elsevier B.V.)
Publication Forum - JUFO (Federation of Finnish Learned Societies) Publication Forum is a classification of publication channels created by the Finnish scientific community to support the quality assessment of academic research.
Scopus: CiteScore 0.7 (2022) Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.
Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers Search for publication channels (journals, series and publishers) in the Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers to see if they are considered as scientific. (https://kanalregister.hkdir.no/publiseringskanaler/Forside).