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Cinnamon and ginger extracts attenuate diabetes-induced inflammatory testicular injury in rats and modulating SIRT1 expression

  • Ghadeer I. Alrefaei1
  • Hailah M. Almohaimeed2
  • Sami A. Algaidi3
  • Mohammed Saad Almuhayawi4
  • Fatma Mohamed AbdAllah5
  • Nouf S. Al-Abbas6
  • Nehad A. Shaer7
  • Zuhair M. Mohammedsaleh8
  • Fayez M Saleh9
  • Nasra Ayuob10,*,

1Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Jeddah, 21589 Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

2Department of Basic Sciences, Medical College, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, 11671 Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

3Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Taibah University, 42353 Medina, Saudi Arabia

4Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, 21589 Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

5Histology department, Damietta Faculty of medicine, Al-Azhar University, 34517 New Damietta, Egypt

6Department of Biology, Jamoum University College, Umm Al-Qura University, 21955 Makkah, Saudi Arabia

7Department of Chemistry, Al Lieth University College, Umm Al-Qura University, 21955 Makkah, Saudi Arabia

8Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, University of Tabuk, 71491 Tabuk, Saudi Arabia

9Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tabuk, 71491 Tabuk, Saudi Arabia

10Department of Medical Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Damietta University, 34517 Damietta, Egypt

DOI: 10.22514/jomh.2023.067 Vol.19,Issue 8,August 2023 pp.22-32

Submitted: 02 March 2023 Accepted: 20 April 2023

Published: 30 August 2023

*Corresponding Author(s): Nasra Ayuob E-mail:


The current study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of simultaneous administration of Zingiber officinale (ginger) and Cinnamomum cassia (cinnamon) extracts in mitigating testicular changes associated with diabetes mellitus in rats and to investigate its molecular mode of action. After induction of diabetes using streptozotocin, 36 male rats were divided to six groups namely control, diabetic, metformin-treated, cinnamon-treated, ginger-treated and combined, each group having 6 rats. Fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, testosterone was measured. Expression of inflammatory mediators; tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) was assessed in the testicular tissue. Histopathological changes in the testis were observed and spermatogenesis and apoptosis were assessed immunohistochemically. The histological and biochemical studies of the untreated group confirmed structural changes in testes induced by diabetes. Oral administration of ginger and cinnamon increased insulin level significantly increased while the blood glucose level significantly decreased in diabetic rats, improving structural testicular changes considerably. Joint intake of ginger and cinnamon increased antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects markedly improving the testicular injury compared to the administration of either of them. SIRT1 expression in the testis significantly increased in ginger plus cinnamon-treated rats. These results indicate that when administrated together, ginger and cinnamon synergistically enhanced antioxidant, antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects and induced antihyperglycemic effect comparable to metformin. The combination of ginger and cinnamon also upregulated SIRT1 in the testis.


Diabetes mellitus; Apoptosis; Ginger; Cinnamon; NF-κB; TNF-α

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Ghadeer I. Alrefaei,Hailah M. Almohaimeed,Sami A. Algaidi,Mohammed Saad Almuhayawi,Fatma Mohamed AbdAllah,Nouf S. Al-Abbas,Nehad A. Shaer,Zuhair M. Mohammedsaleh,Fayez M Saleh,Nasra Ayuob. Cinnamon and ginger extracts attenuate diabetes-induced inflammatory testicular injury in rats and modulating SIRT1 expression. Journal of Men's Health. 2023. 19(8);22-32.


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