The analysis of contrast-enhanced ultrasound features of the liver in male patients with liver cancer and unhealthy life habits under 50 years-of-age
1Department of Medical Ultrasonics, Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, 830054 Urumqi, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China
2Department of Medical Ultrasonics, South China Hospital of Shenzhen University, 518000 Shenzhen, Guangdong, China
DOI: 10.22514/jomh.2023.073 Vol.19,Issue 8,August 2023 pp.70-75
Submitted: 08 May 2023 Accepted: 16 June 2023
Published: 30 August 2023
To analyze the contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) features of livers in male patients under 50 years-of-age with liver cancer and unhealthy life habits. A total of 89 male patients with liver cancer and unhealthy life habits were included in the observation group (all of these patients were first diagnosed with liver cancer when they were <50 years-of-age) and 60 male patients of the same age with benign liver lesions admitted during the same period were included in the control group. All patients had undergone CEUS examination. We summarized and compared the features of liver CEUS from patients in the two groups and analyzed the relationship between liver CEUS results and pathological features. The time to enhancement, enhancement duration and the clearance time of cancer tissues were all significantly shorter in patients from the observation group than those in the control group (p < 0.05). Enhancement patterns of cancer tissues and benign lesion tissues in patients in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group (p < 0.05). Cancerous tissues had fast wash-in and fast wash-out features (93.2%), while benign lesions had slow wash-in and slow wash-out features (60.00%). The proportion of patients with microvascular invasion (MVI)-positive lesions showing more than a 15% increase in maximum diameter was significantly larger than those with MVI-negative lesions (p < 0.05). The differences in enhancement features between liver cancer lesions with various differentiation grades in the portal phase and the delayed phase were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Our findings show that CEUS has high clinical value for diagnosing liver cancer and can be used to judge the MVI status and differentiation grade of liver cancer lesions, thus providing a reference for diagnosing liver cancer and its severity.
Male; Liver cancer; CEUS; Pathological feature
Minghui Li,Ling He,Huimin Li,Liang Zhao. The analysis of contrast-enhanced ultrasound features of the liver in male patients with liver cancer and unhealthy life habits under 50 years-of-age. Journal of Men's Health. 2023. 19(8);70-75.
 Huang DQ, Singal AG, Kono Y, Tan DJH, El-Serag HB, Loomba R. Changing global epidemiology of liver cancer from 2010 to 2019: NASH is the fastest growing cause of liver cancer. Cell Metabolism. 2022; 34: 969–977.e2.
 Liang N, Yang T, Huang Q, Yu P, Liu C, Chen L, et al. Mechanism of cancer stemness maintenance in human liver cancer. Cell Death & Disease. 2022; 13: 394.
 Yuen VW, Wong CC. Hypoxia-inducible factors and innate immunity in liver cancer. The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2020; 130: 5052–5062.
 Fraquelli M, Nadarevic T, Colli A, Manzotti C, Giljaca V, Miletic D, et al. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in adults with chronic liver disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2022; 9: CD013483.
 Ma J, Li J, Jin C, Yang J, Zheng C, Chen K, et al. Association of gut microbiome and primary liver cancer: a two-sample Mendelian randomization and case-control study. Liver International. 2023; 43: 221–233.
 Rizvi S, Wang J, El-Khoueiry AB. Liver cancer immunity. Hepatology. 2021; 73: 86–103.
 Chang GY, Fetzer DT, Porembka MR. Contrast-enhanced intraoperative ultrasound of the liver. Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America. 2022; 31: 707–719.
 Washington MK, Goldberg RM, Chang GJ, Limburg P, Lam AK, Salto-Tellez M, et al. Diagnosis of digestive system tumours. International Journal of Cancer. 2021; 148: 1040–1050.
 Iannacone M, Guidotti LG. Immunobiology and pathogenesis of hepatitis B virus infection. Nature Reviews Immunology. 2022; 22: 19–32.
 Lebossé F, Zoulim F. Hepatitis B vaccine and liver cancer. Bulletin du cancer. 2021; 108: 90–101. (In French)
 Zhang Z, Zeng X, Wu Y, Liu Y, Zhang X, Song Z. Cuproptosis-related risk score predicts prognosis and characterizes the tumor microenvironment in hepatocellular carcinoma. Frontiers in Immunology. 2022; 13: 925618.
 Aboutaleb M, Kheirkhah N, Samani A, Sadeghi-Naini A. An enhanced method for full-inversion-based ultrasound elastography of the liver. Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. 2022; 2022: 3887–3890.
 Dana J, Venkatasamy A, Saviano A, Lupberger J, Hoshida Y, Vilgrain V, et al. Conventional and artificial intelligence-based imaging for biomarker discovery in chronic liver disease. Hepatology International. 2022; 16: 509–522.
 Bai L, Wang X, Shi S, Gao J, Li X, Wang Y, et al. Evaluation of 3D-CEUS in the recurrence of liver cancer after radiofrequency ablation. Journal of Healthcare Engineering. 2021; 2021: 3123553.
 Dietrich CF, Nolsøe CP, Barr RG, Berzigotti A, Burns PN, Cantisani V, et al. Guidelines and good clinical practice recommendations for contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the liver—update 2020—WFUMB in cooperation with EFSUMB, AFSUMB, AIUM, and FLAUS. European Journal of Ultrasound. 2020; 41: 562–585.
 Eisenbrey JR, Gabriel H, Savsani E, Lyshchik A. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in HCC diagnosis and assessment of tumor response to locoregional therapies. Abdominal Radiology. 2021; 46: 3579–3595.
 Ishikawa T, Ohno E, Mizutani Y, Iida T, Koya T, Sasaki Y, et al. Comparison of contrast-enhanced transabdominal ultrasonography following endoscopic ultrasonography with GD-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI for the sequential diagnosis of liver metastasis in patients with pancreatic cancer. Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Sciences. 2022; 29: 682–692.
 Papachristodoulou A, Rafailidis V, Chartambilas E, Yusuf GT, Pras-sopoulos P. “Pseudowashout” artifact on liver haemangioma on CEUS: what to expect and how to avoid! Medical Ultrasonography. 2022; 24: 254–255.
 You Y, Zhang M, Li K, Zeng Q, Luo L, Long Y, et al. Feasibility of 3D US/CEUS-US/CEUS fusion imaging-based ablation planning in liver tumors: a retrospective study. Abdominal Radiology. 2021; 46: 2865–2874.
 Jung EM, Dong Y, Jung F. Current aspects of multimodal ultrasound liver diagnostics using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS), fat evaluation, fibrosis assessment, and perfusion analysis—an update. Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation. 2023; 83: 181–193.
 Minami Y. Understanding the differences between Japanese and U.S. guidelines on clinical practice for contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the liver. Journal of Medical Ultrasonics. 2023; 50: 1–3.
 Sun L, Yin S, Xing B, Li Z, Fan Z, Yan K. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound with SonoVue and Sonazoid for the diagnosis of colorectal liver metastasis after chemotherapy. Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine. 2023; 42: 355–362.
 Como G, Montaldo L, Baccarani U, Lorenzin D, Zuiani C, Girometti R. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound applications in liver transplant imaging. Abdominal Radiology. 2021; 46: 84–95.
 Dong Y, Wang W, Lee WJ, Meloni MF, Clevert D, Chammas MC, et al. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound features of histopathologically proven hepatocellular carcinoma in the non-cirrhotic liver: a multicenter study. Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. 2022; 48: 1797–1805.
 Francica G, Meloni MF, Riccardi L, de Sio I, Caturelli E, Terracciano F, et al. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound findings in patients with rare solitary necrotic nodule of the liver—a multicenter report. European Journal of Ultrasound. 2023; 44: 81–88.
 Morin SH, Lim AK, Cobbold JF, Taylor-Robinson SD. Use of second generation contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the assessment of focal liver lesions. World Journal of Gastroenterology. 2007; 13: 5963–5970.
 Dong Y, Zuo D, Qiu Y, Cao J, Wang H, Yu L, et al. Preoperative prediction of microvascular invasion (MVI) in hepatocellular carcinoma based on Kupffer phase radiomics features of Sonazoid contrast-enhanced ultrasound (SCEUS): a prospective study. Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation. 2022; 81: 97–107.
 Yue Q, Zhou Z, Zhang X, Xu X, Liu Y, Wang K, et al. Contrast-enhanced CT findings-based model to predict MVI in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. BMC Gastroenterol. 2022; 22: 544.
 Jia H, Lyu W, Hirota K, Saito E, Miyoshi M, Hohjoh H, et al. Eggshell membrane modulates gut microbiota to prevent murine pre-cachexia through suppression of T helper cell differentiation. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle. 2022; 13: 2088–2101.
 Gupta R, Schrooders Y, Hauser D, van Herwijnen M, Albrecht W, ter Braak B, et al. Comparing in vitro human liver models to in vivo human liver using RNA-Seq. Archives of Toxicology. 2021; 95: 573–589.
 He Y, Han Y, Fan AH, Li D, Wang B, Ji K, et al. Multi-perspective comparison of the immune microenvironment of primary colorectal cancer and liver metastases. Journal of Translational Medicine. 2022; 20: 454.
Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch) Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,200 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.
Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition aims to evaluate a journal’s value from multiple perspectives including the journal impact factor, descriptive data about a journal’s open access content as well as contributing authors, and provide readers a transparent and publisher-neutral data & statistics information about the journal.
Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) DOAJ is a unique and extensive index of diverse open access journals from around the world, driven by a growing community, committed to ensuring quality content is freely available online for everyone.
SCImago The SCImago Journal & Country Rank is a publicly available portal that includes the journals and country scientific indicators developed from the information contained in the Scopus® database (Elsevier B.V.)
Publication Forum - JUFO (Federation of Finnish Learned Societies) Publication Forum is a classification of publication channels created by the Finnish scientific community to support the quality assessment of academic research.
Scopus: CiteScore 0.7 (2022) Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.
Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers Search for publication channels (journals, series and publishers) in the Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers to see if they are considered as scientific. (https://kanalregister.hkdir.no/publiseringskanaler/Forside).