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Effect of unsupervised Kinect-based mixed reality fitness programs on health-related fitness in men during COVID-19 pandemic: randomized controlled study

  • So Young Ahn1
  • Yun Ho Sung1
  • Jun-Hyun Bae2
  • Byung Gul Lim1
  • XinXing Li1
  • Dong Hyun Kim1
  • Dong Il Seo3
  • Jung Jun Park4
  • Hyun Joo Kang5
  • Han Joon Lee6
  • Chung Gun Lee7
  • Yeon Soon Ahn8
  • Wook Song1,9,10,*,

1Health and Exercise Science Laboratory, Institute of Sports Science, Department of Physical Education, Seoul National University, 08826 Seoul, Republic of Korea

2Virtual Reality Research Institute, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, 266061 Qingdao, Shandong, China

3Department of Sports Science, Dongguk University, 38066 Gyeongju, Republic of Korea

4Division of Sports Science, Pusan National University, 46241 Busan, Republic of Korea

5Department of Sports Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, 31538 Asan-si, Republic of Korea

6University of Ulsan, 44610 Ulsan, Republic of Korea

7Institute of Sport Science, Department of Physical Education, Seoul National University, 08826 Seoul, Republic of Korea

8Department of Preventive Medicine and Genomic Cohort Study Institute, Yonsei Won-ju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, 26426 Wonju-si, Republic of Korea

9Institute on Aging, Seoul National University, 08826 Seoul, Republic of Korea

10Dr. Exsol Co, Ltd, 06521 Seoul, Republic of Korea

DOI: 10.22514/jomh.2023.090 Vol.19,Issue 9,September 2023 pp.104-112

Submitted: 04 May 2023 Accepted: 01 June 2023

Published: 30 September 2023

*Corresponding Author(s): Wook Song E-mail:


This study aimed to investigate the effect of Kinect-based mixed reality (KMR) exercise and unsupervised individual exercise on health-related fitness. A total of 27 participants underwent cardiorespiratory fitness tests for the inclusion criteria and were randomly assigned to three groups: a KMR group (KMRG), an unsupervised individual group (UIG), or a control group (CG). Pre and post-tests were conducted to measure Maximum oxygen uptake (VO₂max), body composition, upper and lower-body (LB) muscle strength, and endurance. KMRG and UIG attended exercise sessions 3 days per week for 8 weeks. KMRG used the KMR device and UIG used an instructive banner for exercise. All groups maintained their daily routines and submitted diet records every 4 weeks. Results showed that VO₂max, upper-body muscle endurance, and LB muscle endurance of knee extension was increased in KMRG and UIG. LB muscle strength in knee flexion was increased in UIG and LB muscle endurance in knee flexion was increased in KMRG. VO₂max, LB muscle strength, and LB muscle endurance were greater in KMRG than in CG. LB muscle strength in knee flexion was greater in KMRG than in UIG. Body fat was increased and skeletal muscle mass was decreased in CG. KMR exercise showed better performance than unsupervised individual (UI) exercise, and the exercise program was effective in both KMR and UI environments. These findings contribute to the growing evidence supporting the use of technology-based exercise interventions as a potential strategy to enhance health-related fitness.


Digital health; Fitness program; Kinect; Mixed reality; Unsupervised; Physical fitness

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So Young Ahn,Yun Ho Sung,Jun-Hyun Bae,Byung Gul Lim,XinXing Li,Dong Hyun Kim,Dong Il Seo,Jung Jun Park,Hyun Joo Kang,Han Joon Lee,Chung Gun Lee,Yeon Soon Ahn,Wook Song. Effect of unsupervised Kinect-based mixed reality fitness programs on health-related fitness in men during COVID-19 pandemic: randomized controlled study. Journal of Men's Health. 2023. 19(9);104-112.


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