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Systematic review

Open Access

Technical elements on the rings in men's artistic gymnastics—a systematic review

  • Dušan Đorđević1,*,†,
  • Miloš Paunović1,†
  • Saša Veličković1,†
  • Petar Veličković1,†
  • Mima Stanković1,†
  • Danilo Radanović2
  • Rifat Mujanović3
  • Dino Mujanović2
  • Igor Jelaska4
  • Luka Pezelj5
  • Goran Sporiš6

1Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Niš, 18000 Niš, RS, Serbia

2Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Novi Sad, 21000 Novi Sad, RS, Serbia

3Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Novi Pazar, 36300 Novi Pazar, RS, Serbia

4Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Split, 21000 Split, Croatia

5Faculty of Maritime Studies, University of Split, 21000 Split, Croatia

6Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Zagreb, 10110 Zagreb, Croatia

DOI: 10.22514/jomh.2023.095 Vol.19,Issue 10,October 2023 pp.7-15

Submitted: 31 August 2022 Accepted: 03 January 2023

Published: 30 October 2023

*Corresponding Author(s): Dušan Đorđević E-mail:

† These authors contributed equally.


Although rings can move freely in all possible directions, by which they differ from all other apparatuses, physical performance at highest level is essetial in men’s artistic gymnastics to fulfill the exercise’s technical requirements in the interest of effective and accurate performance. We have aimed to compile the scientific evidence regarding exercises on the rings in men’s artistic gymnastics and, based on it, to investigate the necessary requirements for their successful realization. In regard to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, the database search (Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science and Research Gate) has identified 5759 potential studies. Original cross-sectional studies published between 2000 and 2022 written in English, active male gymnasts who do not suffer from injury as a sample of participants, and studies that have evaluated different types of elements on the rings were reconsidered. Lastly, 15 full-text studies were identified. A total of seven elements were evaluated, four strength elements (swallow, Azarian, iron cross and support scale), two dismounts (double backflip straight and double backflip straight with a 360◦ turn), and one swing element (backward giant swing). Two studies have conducted a dismount kinematic analysis, another four strength elements electromyography, while two studies have used force plates to evaluate the required specific strength for their successful performance. Hence, handgrip strength, pectoralis muscles, teres major, deltoids and serratus anterior are crucial. In addition, handgrip strength, proper swing movement, lateral arm movement during the descending phase, and hip flexor/extensor muscle activity are also essential for both giant swings and dismounts. Progressive strength upgrade of key movements in younger gymnasts is necessary to make successful generations on the rings. Therefore, in order to upgrade the above, researchers and scientists should discover a method for providing more relevant and updated information for practitioners, i.e., coaches and gymnasts.


Rings; Men’s artistic gymnastics; Strength; Swing; Dismount

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Dušan Đorđević,Miloš Paunović,Saša Veličković,Petar Veličković,Mima Stanković,Danilo Radanović,Rifat Mujanović,Dino Mujanović,Igor Jelaska,Luka Pezelj,Goran Sporiš. Technical elements on the rings in men's artistic gymnastics—a systematic review. Journal of Men's Health. 2023. 19(10);7-15.


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