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Original Research

Open Access Special Issue

A service evaluation on the impact of brain injury linkworker (BIL) interventions on the anxiety and depression of men in prison and on probation

  • Elorm Boglo1,†
  • Ryan Jones1
  • Sara da Silva Ramos1
  • Annmarie Burns1,*,†,

1Brainkind (formally The Disabilities Trust), RH15 9NP Burgess Hill, UK

DOI: 10.22514/jomh.2023.109 Vol.19,Issue 11,November 2023 pp.41-50

Submitted: 02 June 2023 Accepted: 22 August 2023

Published: 30 November 2023

*Corresponding Author(s): Annmarie Burns E-mail:

† These authors contributed equally.


It is well established that the prevalence of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is higher in offender populations than the general population. Men in prison and probation services also have many of the risk factors that place them at higher risk of developing neuropsychiatric complications following a TBI (e.g., low socioeconomic backgrounds, previous history of substance misuse). The BIL service, developed in 2013 by Brainkind (formally The Disabilities Trust) delivers brain injury rehabilitation to men engaged with South Wales (United Kingdom) Prison and Probation Services. As part of a wider service evaluation, we reviewed the levels of anxiety (Generalised Anxiety Disorder assessment, GAD-7) and depression (Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ-9) of 50 men in prison or on probation pre- and post-BIL intervention. Results showed a significant decrease in the scores reported on the GAD-7 between the start (Mean—M = 15.38, Standard Deviation—SD = 4.64) and end (M = 11.84, SD = 5.15) of the intervention (t (49) = 2.01, p = 0.00000733). Additionally, there was a significant decrease in self-reported depression symptoms as observed by the scores on the PHQ-9 between the start (M = 17.08, SD = 5.55) and end (M = 12.42, SD = 6.55) of the intervention (t (49) = 2.01, p = 0.0000125). These results indicate that overall there was an improvement in the men’s levels of anxiety and depression following the BIL intervention. This service evaluation provides a clear rationale for the development of a more rigorous research protocol to explore the relationship between brain injury interventions and the impact on mental health in this population.


Acquired brain injury; Neurorehabilitation; Offender population

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Elorm Boglo,Ryan Jones,Sara da Silva Ramos,Annmarie Burns. A service evaluation on the impact of brain injury linkworker (BIL) interventions on the anxiety and depression of men in prison and on probation. Journal of Men's Health. 2023. 19(11);41-50.


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