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Effects of conditioning activities and time of day on male elite football players

  • Ghazwa Ben Maaouia1
  • Özgür Eken2,*,
  • Fatma Hilal Yagin3
  • Georgian Badicu4,*,
  • Sameer Badri Al-Mhanna5
  • Luca Paolo Ardigò6,†
  • Nizar Souissi7,†

1Research Unit (UR17JS01), Sport Performance, Health & Society, Higher Institute of Sport and Physical Education of Ksar Saîd, University of La Manouba, 2010 Manouba, Tunisia

2Department of Physical Education and Sport Teaching, Inonu University, 44280 Malatya, Turkey

3Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, Inonu University, 44280 Malatya, Turkey

4Department of Physical Education and Special Motricity, Faculty of Physical Education and Mountain Sports, Transilvania University of Braşov, 500068 Braşov, Romania

5Department of Physiology and Exercise, School of Medical Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia USM, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia

6Department of Teacher Education, NLA University College, 0166, Oslo, Norway

7Research Unit, National Center of Medicine and Science in Sports, 1003 Tunis, Tunisia

DOI: 10.22514/jomh.2023.127 Vol.19,Issue 12,December 2023 pp.31-43

Submitted: 25 August 2023 Accepted: 19 September 2023

Published: 30 December 2023

*Corresponding Author(s): Özgür Eken E-mail: ozgur.eken@inonu.edu.tr
*Corresponding Author(s): Georgian Badicu E-mail: Xgeorgian.badicu@unitbv.roX

† These authors contributed equally.

Abstract

This study evaluated the effects of different warm-up protocols based on conditioning activity combined with stretching exercises at different times of the day. Participants (20 first league of Tunisian football players) performed four warm-up protocols on two times a day in the morning: 09:00–10:00 and in the evening: 16:00–17:00, with at least 2 days between test sessions. All groups followed the warm-up randomly at two different periods of the day on non-consecutive days. The four protocols included: Dynamic stretching (DS), Dynamic stretching + conditioning activity (DS + High-Intensity Sprints HSJ), Dynamic stretching + drop jump (DS + DJ), and control (CONT). The thirty-meter sprint performance after different stretching and potentiation-based warm-up protocols was recorded. Two-way Permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) analysis was applied to examine the difference between warm-up protocols, the difference between the time of day and the interaction effect. The major finding revealed that 30 m sprint results and the exercise-induced temperature significantly differed from morning and evening stretching and potentiation-based warm-up protocols (statistically significant p < 0.05, and evening measurements were higher compared to the morning). In conclusion, and from a practical point of view, if the objective is to increase performance over a shorter period of time, each of these warm-up protocols can be useful. For the best improvement, DS + HSJ may be preferable both in the morning and the evening.


Keywords

Chronobiology; Football; Post-activation potentiation; Time of day; Physical activity


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Ghazwa Ben Maaouia,Özgür Eken,Fatma Hilal Yagin,Georgian Badicu,Sameer Badri Al-Mhanna,Luca Paolo Ardigò,Nizar Souissi. Effects of conditioning activities and time of day on male elite football players. Journal of Men's Health. 2023. 19(12);31-43.

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