Article Data

  • Views 346
  • Dowloads 153

Original Research

Open Access

Analysis of risk factors for benign prostate enlargement with prostate calcification

  • Xiaoling Chen1
  • Yanzhi Han2,*,

1Department of Health Management Physical Examination Center, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital Sun Yat-sen University, 519000 Zhuhai, Guangdong, China

2Department of Gastroenterology, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital Sun Yat-sen University, 519000 Zhuhai, Guangdong, China

DOI: 10.22514/jomh.2024.014 Vol.20,Issue 1,January 2024 pp.107-113

Submitted: 27 September 2023 Accepted: 28 November 2023

Published: 30 January 2024

*Corresponding Author(s): Yanzhi Han E-mail: hyz8885@126.com

Abstract

The occurrence of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) accompanied by calcification can reduce the quality of life and treatment effectiveness of patients. This study focuses on middle-aged and elderly patients in physical examination centers, and divides them into a control group and a study group based on their condition. By comparing the general information and serum indicators of the subjects, descriptive analysis methods are used to analyze the risk factors for prostate hyperplasia accompanied by calcification. Among 700 male physical examinations, there were 305 patients with benign prostate enlargement, with a prevalence rate of 43.57%. There were 290 patients with prostate calcification, accounting for 41.43%. Among them, there were 203 patients with prostate calcification in BPH, accounting for 66.56%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age, education and culture, diabetes, hypertension, uric acid (UA) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) are independent risk factors for prostate calcification, while height is the protective factor. The prevalence rate of BPH and BPH with prostate calcification is high in middle-aged and elderly men. Although the cause of calcification is still unclear, age, education, occupation, diabetes, hypertension, UA, BUN and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) indicators are closely related to the disease. Therefore, early intervention should be carried out according to the above risk factors to prevent the occurrence of the disease as soon as possible.


Keywords

Benign prostatic enlargement; Prostate calcification; Risk factor analysis


Cite and Share

Xiaoling Chen,Yanzhi Han. Analysis of risk factors for benign prostate enlargement with prostate calcification. Journal of Men's Health. 2024. 20(1);107-113.

References

[1] Miernik A, Gratzke C. Current treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Deutsches Arzteblatt International. 2020; 117: 843–854.

[2] Franco JVA, Jung JH, Imamura M, Borofsky M, Omar MI, Escobar Liquitay CM, et al. Minimally invasive treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia: a Cochrane network meta-analysis. BJU International. 2022; 130: 142–156.

[3] Raynor WY, Borja AJ, Zhang V, Kothekar E, Lau HC, Ng SJ, et al. Assessing coronary artery and aortic calcification in patients with prostate cancer using 18F-sodium fluoride PET/computed tomography. PET Clinics. 2022; 17: 653–659.

[4] Kapogiannis F, Fasoulakis K, Fragkoulis C, Aggelopoulos A, Fasoulakis C. Total osseous calcification of the prostate gland. Cureus. 2020; 12: e9239.

[5] Lavi A, Nair SM, Halstuch D, Chin JL. Prostatic dystrophic calcification following salvage cryotherapy for prostate cancer—an under-reported entity? Scandinavian Journal of Urology. 2021; 55: 33–35.

[6] Kusuma Duarsa GW, Sari YA, Gde Oka AA, Santosa KB, Yudiana IW, Wisnu Tirtayasa PM, et al. Serum testosterone and prostate-specific antigen levels are major risk factors for prostatic volume increase among benign prostatic hyperplasia patients. Asian Journal of Urology. 2021; 8: 289–297.

[7] Yu SH, Lim DG, Kim S. Clinical significance of distally located periurethral calcification in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms of benign prostate hyperplasia. Asian Journal of Andrology. 2023; 25: 361–365.

[8] Madersbacher S, Sampson N, Culig Z. Pathophysiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia and benign prostatic enlargement: a mini-review. Gerontology. 2019; 65: 458–464.

[9] Lerner LB, McVary KT, Barry MJ, Bixler BR, Dahm P, Das AK, et al. Management of lower urinary tract symptoms attributed to benign prostatic hyperplasia: AUA GUIDELINE PART I—initial work-up and medical management. Journal of Urology. 2021; 206: 806–817.

[10] Dornbier R, Pahouja G, Branch J, McVary KT. The new American urological association benign prostatic hyperplasia clinical guidelines: 2019 update. Current Urology Reports. 2020; 21: 32.

[11] Mehra R, Shah T, Liu C, Plouffe KR, Wang X, Mannan R, et al. Highly recurrent IDH1 mutations in prostate cancer with psammomatous calcification. Modern Pathology. 2023; 36: 100146.

[12] Zhang X, Xiao L, Zhang L, Zhou J, Hao Z, Yang C, et al. Associated factors for prostate enlargement in Chinese adult men aged <40 receiving checkups. International Journal of Clinical Practice. 2022; 2022: 4792451.

[13] Erfani S, Raeisi N, Shakeri S, Askari E. Prostatic bed calcification with MDP uptake: easy to miss on planar images. To be published in Nuclear Medicine Review. Central & Eastern Europe. 2022. [Preprint].

[14] Kao J, Karwowski P, Pettit J, Barney AK, Atalla C. Multiparametric prostate MRI-based intensity-modulated radiation therapy guided by prostatic calcifications. The British Journal of Radiology. 2020; 93: 20200571.

[15] Singh S, Martin E, Tregidgo HFJ, Treeby B, Bandula S. Prostatic calcifications: quantifying occurrence, radiodensity, and spatial distribution in prostate cancer patients. Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations. 2021; 39: 728.e1–728.e6.

[16] Ather MM, Aman S, Qamar H, Latif R, Baloch MB, Zehra U. Lower urinary tract symptoms in patients with small prostates: smooth muscle proliferation and calcification might be causative factors. Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms. 2022; 14: 267–272.

[17] Bazzi LA, Sigurdardottir LG, Sigurdsson S, Valdimarsdottir U, Torfadottir J, Aspelund T, et al. Exploratory assessment of pineal gland volume, composition, and urinary 6‐sulfatoxymelatonin levels on prostate cancer risk. The Prostate. 2021; 81: 487–496.

[18] Thomas J, Khelif A, Arulanantham S, Lemaitre J, Lalive d’Epinay J. Discovery of primary hyperparathyroidism following an endoscopic resection of the prostate: case report. Journal of Surgical Case Reports. 2022; 2022: rjac247.

[19] Leonard AJ, Garg N, Chen TT, Monga M. Case of the Month from UCSD, San Diego, USA: treatment of giant dystrophic prostatic calcification using MOSES holmium laser. BJU International. 2022; 129: 306–308.

[20] Knight GM, Talwar A, Salem R, Mouli S. Systematic review and meta-analysis comparing prostatic artery embolization to gold-standard transurethral resection of the prostate for benign prostatic hyperplasia. CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology. 2021; 44: 183–193.

[21] Lerner LB, McVary KT, Barry MJ, Bixler BR, Dahm P, Das AK, et al. Management of lower urinary tract symptoms attributed to benign prostatic hyperplasia: AUA GUIDELINE PART II—surgical evaluation and treatment. Journal of Urology. 2021; 206: 818–826.

[22] Han C, Zhu L, Liu X, Ma S, Liu Y, Wang X. Differential diagnosis of uncommon prostate diseases: combining mpMRI and clinical information. Insights into Imaging. 2021; 12: 79.

[23] Lintin L, Barge T, Boardman P, Tong G, Tapping C. Predictors of technical outcome for prostatic artery embolisation using pre-procedural CT angiography. European Radiology. 2021; 31: 1308–1315.

[24] Agarwal DK, Krambeck AE. Challenging case of holmium laser enucleation of the prostate after prior prostatic focal laser ablations and Rezum. Urology. 2021; 153: 358.

[25] Calogero AE, Burgio G, Condorelli RA, Cannarella R, La Vignera S. Epidemiology and risk factors of lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hyperplasia and erectile dysfunction. The Aging Male. 2019; 22: 12–19.

[26] Wang X, Su Y, Yang C, Hu Y, Dong J. Benign prostatic hyperplasia and cardiovascular risk: a prospective study among Chinese men. World Journal of Urology. 2022; 40: 177–183.

[27] Lokeshwar SD, Harper BT, Webb E, Jordan A, Dykes TA, Neal Jr DE, et al. Epidemiology and treatment modalities for the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Translational Andrology and Urology. 2019; 8: 529–539.

[28] Lloyd GL, Ricke WA, McVary KT. Inflammation, voiding and benign prostatic hyperplasia progression. Journal of Urology. 2019; 201: 868–870.

[29] Jin S, Liu Z, Liu Y, Wu J, Yu Q. Analysis of risk factors and nursing strategies for postoperative hemorrhage of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2022; 2022: 4205015.

[30] Xu B, Liu M, Liu Y, Zuo J. Risk factors of urinary pathogenic bacteria infection after benign prostatic hyperplasia surgery and curative effect analysis of Shuangdong capsule intervention. Emergency Medicine International. 2022; 2022: 4069787.

[31] Becerra MF, Atluri VS, Bhattu AS, Punnen S. Serum and urine biomarkers for detecting clinically significant prostate cancer. Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations. 2021; 39: 686–690.


Abstracted / indexed in

Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch) Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,200 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.

Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition aims to evaluate a journal’s value from multiple perspectives including the journal impact factor, descriptive data about a journal’s open access content as well as contributing authors, and provide readers a transparent and publisher-neutral data & statistics information about the journal.

Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) DOAJ is a unique and extensive index of diverse open access journals from around the world, driven by a growing community, committed to ensuring quality content is freely available online for everyone.

SCImago The SCImago Journal & Country Rank is a publicly available portal that includes the journals and country scientific indicators developed from the information contained in the Scopus® database (Elsevier B.V.)

Publication Forum - JUFO (Federation of Finnish Learned Societies) Publication Forum is a classification of publication channels created by the Finnish scientific community to support the quality assessment of academic research.

Scopus: CiteScore 0.7 (2022) Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.

Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers Search for publication channels (journals, series and publishers) in the Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers to see if they are considered as scientific. (https://kanalregister.hkdir.no/publiseringskanaler/Forside).

Submission Turnaround Time

Conferences

Top