Article Data

  • Views 435
  • Dowloads 149

Original Research

Open Access

The longitudinal relationship between changes in smoking and depression in older male adults

  • Kyuhyoung Jeong1
  • Hyegyeong Son2,*,
  • Sungeun Kim3
  • Juhee Kim4
  • Heeran J. Cho5

1Department of Social Welfare, Jeonbuk National University, 54896 Jeonju, Republic of Korea

2College of Nursing, Kosin University, 49267 Busan, Republic of Korea

3Hidden J Grace, 06689 Seoul, Republic of Korea

4Department of Local Autonomy Administration, Chungnam State University, 33303 Cheongyang, Republic of Korea

5Department of Public Health Administration, Seoul Cyber University, 01133 Seoul, Republic of Korea

DOI: 10.22514/jomh.2024.044 Vol.20,Issue 3,March 2024 pp.106-112

Submitted: 19 September 2023 Accepted: 10 October 2023

Published: 30 March 2024

*Corresponding Author(s): Hyegyeong Son E-mail:


In this study, we investigated the relationship between smoking habits and the development of depression among elderly males in South Korea. We used the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA) data from 2006 to 2020 to analyze the longitudinal relationship between daily cigarette consumption and depression levels in elderly Korean men over 65 years-of-age, as measured on the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D)-10 scale. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS 28.0 and M-plus 8.0, with Latent Growth Modeling to determine the changes and relationships over time. Analysis revealed a declining average daily smoking rate from 4.50 cigarettes in 2006 to 0.85 in 2020, while depression scores exhibited fluctuations over this duration of time. Using a linear growth model, we identified that as the initial smoking rate was higher, the increase in depression was steeper over time (Coefficient = 0.016, p < 0.001). Furthermore, as smoking decreased progressively, the rise in depression was sharper, highlighting a potential relationship between decreasing smoking habits and increasing depression in elderly men (Coefficient = 0.030, p < 0.001). In conclusion, the reduction of smoking by elderly Korean men over time is associated with a notable increase in depression. This relationship suggests a complex interplay between mental health and lifestyle changes, emphasizing the importance of holistic approaches when addressing health issues in the aging population. Our findings suggest that policies targeting elderly men should address this potential relationship, and that comprehensive interventions now need to manage both smoking cessation and mental health simultaneously.


Depression; Mental health; Older adults; Public health policy; Smoking

Cite and Share

Kyuhyoung Jeong,Hyegyeong Son,Sungeun Kim,Juhee Kim,Heeran J. Cho. The longitudinal relationship between changes in smoking and depression in older male adults. Journal of Men's Health. 2024. 20(3);106-112.


[1] World Health Organization. WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2023: protect people from tobacco smoke (Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO). World Health Organization: Geneva. 2023.

[2] Health and Welfare. National Health Promotion Act. Chapter II Management of Public Health. 2021.

[3] Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency. 2021 National Health Statistics—National. Health and Nutrition Survey 8th 3rd Year. 2021. Available at: (Accessed: 28 August 2023).

[4] OECD. Daily smokers. 2023. Available at: (Accessed: 18 October 2023).

[5] Cho MD, Lim SA. Association between smoking behavior and denture wear in the elderly aged 65 years and older in South Korea: the 7th Korea national health and nutrition examination survey. Journal of Korean Society of Dental Hygiene. 2022; 22: 341–346.

[6] Joe H. Association between metabolic syndrome and triglyceride to HDL-cholesterol ratio according to smoking status in Korean men aged 60 years and over. Korean Journal of Clinical Geriatrics. 2020; 21: 110–116.

[7] Chung HT. The effect of elderly smoking habits on life satisfaction in rural area. Journal of Convergence for Information Technology. 2019; 9: 98–103.

[8] Burns A, Strawbridge JD, Clancy L, Doyle F. Exploring smoking, mental health and smoking-related disease in a nationally representative sample of older adults in Ireland—a retrospective secondary analysis. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 2017; 98: 78–86.

[9] Ku JK, Song IJ. A convergence study on the effects of stress on suicidal ideation in the elderly’s-mediating effects of depression. Journal of the Korea Convergence Society. 2020; 11: 301–310.

[10] Kim KT, Choi SS, Park MJ, Park SH, Ko SH, Park HS. The effect of family structures and psycho-social factors on suicidal ideation of senior citizens. Korean Journal of Gerontological Social Welfare. 2011; 52: 205–228.

[11] Jang EH, Nam SI. The effect of the four major difficulties on suicide ideation among the elderly: focusing on the mediating effect of depression. Korean Journal of Gerontological Social Welfare. 2015; 69: 123–152.

[12] Glassman AH. Smoking, smoking cessation, and major depression. JAMA. 1990; 264: 1546.

[13] Quattrocki E, Baird A, Yurgelun-Todd D. Biological aspects of the link between smoking and depression. Harvard Review of Psychiatry. 2000; 8: 99–110.

[14] Milic M, Gazibara T, Pekmezovic T, Kisic Tepavcevic D, Maric G, Popovic A, et al. Tobacco smoking and health-related quality of life among university students: mediating effect of depression. PLOS ONE. 2020; 15: e0227042.

[15] Mendelsohn C. Smoking and depression: a review. Australian Family Physician. 2012; 41: 304–307.

[16] McKenzie M, Olsson CA, Jorm AF, Romaniuk H, Patton GC. Association of adolescent symptoms of depression and anxiety with daily smoking and nicotine dependence in young adulthood: findings from a 10-year longitudinal study. Addiction. 2010; 105: 1652–1659.

[17] Farooqui M, Shoaib S, Afaq H, Quadri S, Zaina F, Baig A, et al. Bidirectionality of smoking and depression in adolescents: a systematic review. Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy. 2023; 45: e20210429.

[18] Um S, Choi I, Jung JH, Lee SH. The relationship between smoking behavior and depression in korean elderly: focusing on propensity score matching. Korean Society of Gerontological Social Welfare Academic Presentation Papers. 2017; 7: 469–471.

[19] Kim HY, Hwang SJ. Association of smoking, economic status and oral health in the elderly in Dong-gu, Daejeon. Journal of Korean Academy of Oral Health. 2011; 35: 67–76.

[20] Radloff LS. The CES-D scale. Applied Psychological Measurement. 1977; 1: 385–401.

[21] Park EJ. Changes in health behaviors in South Korea examined through the Korean medical panel (2010–2018): smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity among adults and seniors. Health Welfare Issue & Focus. 2021; 406: 1–8.

[22] Heo WG. A study on the participation in social activities of the elderly and the developmental trajectories of depression. Social Science Research Review. 2017; 33: 183–206.

[23] Lee GM, Yang YR. Association between daily life changes due to COVID-19 and depression. Korean Public Health Research. 2023; 49: 165–181.

[24] Sung HN, Kim JS. The relationship between smoking and depressive symptoms among Korean adults. Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion. 2016; 33: 57–66.

[25] Taylor G, McNeill A, Girling A, Farley A, Lindson-Hawley N, Aveyard P. Change in mental health after smoking cessation: systematic review and meta-analysis. British Medical Journal. 2014; 348: g1151.

[26] Robb CE, de Jager CA, Ahmadi-Abhari S, Giannakopoulou P, Udeh-Momoh C, McKeand J, et al. Associations of social isolation with anxiety and depression during the early COVID-19 pandemic: a survey of older adults in London, UK. Frontiers in Psychiatry. 2020; 17: 591120.

[27] Lee JE, Lee KH. A case report on the health promotion programs for rural residents in a rural area during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Korean Academy of Rural Health Nursing. 2022; 17: 67–74.

[28] Kim M, Lee E, Kim J. A study on the types of health promoting behavior and depression in the elderly before and after COVID-19: focusing on latent class analysis. Korean Journal of Security Convergence Management. 2023; 12: 115–137.

Abstracted / indexed in

Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch) Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,200 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.

Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition aims to evaluate a journal’s value from multiple perspectives including the journal impact factor, descriptive data about a journal’s open access content as well as contributing authors, and provide readers a transparent and publisher-neutral data & statistics information about the journal.

Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) DOAJ is a unique and extensive index of diverse open access journals from around the world, driven by a growing community, committed to ensuring quality content is freely available online for everyone.

SCImago The SCImago Journal & Country Rank is a publicly available portal that includes the journals and country scientific indicators developed from the information contained in the Scopus® database (Elsevier B.V.)

Publication Forum - JUFO (Federation of Finnish Learned Societies) Publication Forum is a classification of publication channels created by the Finnish scientific community to support the quality assessment of academic research.

Scopus: CiteScore 0.7 (2022) Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.

Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers Search for publication channels (journals, series and publishers) in the Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers to see if they are considered as scientific. (

Submission Turnaround Time