Article Data

  • Views 474
  • Dowloads 179

Review

Open Access

The role of lifestyle changes to diet, physical activity, and sleep during Ramadan in controlling metabolic syndrome in adults: a scoping review

  • Khalid S. Aljaloud1,*,

1Department of Exercise Physiology, College of Sport Sciences & Physical Activity, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2454, 11451 Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

DOI: 10.22514/jomh.2024.049 Vol.20,Issue 4,April 2024 pp.1-11

Submitted: 10 November 2023 Accepted: 26 December 2023

Published: 30 April 2024

*Corresponding Author(s): Khalid S. Aljaloud E-mail: khaljaloud@ksu.edu.sa

Abstract

This scoping review aimed to investigate the role of lifestyle changes during Ramadan in controlling metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adults. The lifestyle factors investigated were diet, physical activity (PA) and sleep. The review was guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews, Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) checklist, and Joanna Briggs Institute methodological frameworks. The Web of Science, Google Scholar, PubMed, CINAHL (EBSCO), and Scopus databases were searched using the following terms: “diet”, “physical activity”, “sleep” and/or “lifestyle” with “Ramadan”, “Ramadan month” or “the month of Ramadan”. The selection included all research articles published from January 1998 until the end of June 2023. Only full-text studies that met the selection criteria were reviewed. A lack of robust evidence exists on the impact of lifestyle changes during Ramadan on MetS components. The scarcity of cohort studies in this area is likely because they could only be conducted during a particular month each year. However, the available evidence shows that lifestyle changes during Ramadan, including PA, diet and sleep, may be significant in MetS control. The evidence suggests that diet is the most influential factor on MetS components during Ramadan month, whereas sleep is the least influential. Ramadan represents an opportunity for patients to enhance their control of MetS components by combining a healthy diet with PA and good sleep hygiene. Further robust studies are required to develop an in-depth understanding of the impact of lifestyle changes during Ramadan on MetS components.


Keywords

Metabolic syndrome; Obesity; Ramadan; Fasting; Diet; Physical activity; Sleep


Cite and Share

Khalid S. Aljaloud. The role of lifestyle changes to diet, physical activity, and sleep during Ramadan in controlling metabolic syndrome in adults: a scoping review. Journal of Men's Health. 2024. 20(4);1-11.

References

[1] Grim BJ, Hsu B. Estimating the global muslim population: size and distribution of the World’s Muslim population. Interdisciplinary Journal of Research on Religion. 2011; 7: No. 2.

[2] Al-Barha NS, Aljaloud KS. The effect of Ramadan fasting on body composition and metabolic syndrome in apparently healthy men. American Journal of Men’s Health. 2019; 13: 1557988318816925.

[3] Baanter NS, Elsayed AAA, Aljerian K, Aldahmash WM, Al-Qahtani WS, Alwasel SH. Changes in maternal lifestyle during Ramadan altered placental development. Advances in Reproductive Sciences. 2020; 08: 126–142.

[4] Wong SK, Ramli FF, Ali A, Ibrahim NI. Genetics of cholesterol-related genes in metabolic syndrome: a review of current evidence. Biomedicines. 2022; 10: 3239.

[5] King RA, Rotter JI, Motulsky AG. Approach to genetic basis of common diseases. Oxford Monographs on Medical Genetics. 2002; 44: 3–17.

[6] Ranasinghe P, Mathangasinghe Y, Jayawardena R, Hills AP, Misra A. Prevalence and trends of metabolic syndrome among adults in the Asia-pacific region: a systematic review. BMC Public Health. 2017; 17: 101.

[7] Elamin A, Fauzia R, Alaaeldin BM, Suada MA. A prospective study comparing the effects of ramadan fasting on metabolic parameters in healthy muslims from three different nationalities in Dubai. Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism. 2015; 6: 484.

[8] Aktas MF, Mähler A, Hamm M, Perger G, Simon F, Westenhöfer J, et al. Lifestyle interventions in Muslim patients with metabolic syndrome—a feasibility study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2019; 73: 805–808.

[9] Faris MAE, Jahrami HA, Alsibai J, Obaideen AA. Impact of Ramadan diurnal intermittent fasting on the metabolic syndrome components in healthy, non-athletic Muslim people aged over 15 years: a systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Nutrition. 2020; 123: 1–22.

[10] Dehghanbanadaki H, Aazami H, Hosseinkhani S, Razi F, Bandarian F, Larijani B. Bibliometric overview of Ramadan fasting studies during 2010–2021. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews. 2022; 16: 102531.

[11] Bandarian F, Namazi N, Atlasi R, Nasli-Esfahani E, Larijani B. Research gaps in Ramadan fasting studies in health and disease. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews. 2021; 15: 831–835.

[12] Darzabi T, Hejazi K, Shahrokhi H. The effects of Ramadan fasting on metabolic syndrome and body composition in male students. Journal of Client-Centered Nursing Care. 2019; 5: 239–246.

[13] Kylin E. Study About the Hypertension-Hyperglycemia-Hyperuricemia syndrome. Zentralblatt für innere Medizin. 1923; 44: 105–127.

[14] Jayant SS, Gupta R, Rastogi A, Agrawal K, Sachdeva N, Ram S, et al. Abdominal obesity and incident cardio-metabolic disorders in Asian-Indians: a 10-years prospective cohort study. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews. 2022; 16: 102418.

[15] Ahmed M, Kumari N, Mirgani Z, Saeed A, Ramadan A, Ahmed MH, et al. Metabolic syndrome; definition, pathogenesis, elements, and the effects of medicinal plants on it’s elements. Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders. 2022; 21: 1011–1022.

[16] Rizvi AA, Stoian AP, Rizzo M. Metabolic syndrome: from molecular mechanisms to novel therapies. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22: 10038.

[17] Despres J. Abdominal obesity as important component of insulin-resistance syndrome. Nutrition. 1993; 9: 452–459.

[18] Alberti KGMM, Zimmet PZ. Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Part 1: diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Provisional report of a WHO consultation. Diabetic Medicine. 1998; 15: 539–553.

[19] Shaw JE, Zimmet PZ, Alberti KGMM. Point: impaired fasting glucose: the case for the new American diabetes association criterion. Diabetes Care. 2006; 29: 1170–1172.

[20] Kahn R. Follow-up report on the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus: the expert committee on the diagnosis and classifications of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes care. 2003; 26: 3160.

[21] Wen J, Yang J, Shi Y, Liang Y, Wang F, Duan X, et al. Comparisons of different metabolic syndrome definitions and associations with coronary heart disease, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease in a rural Chinese population. PLOS ONE. 2015; 10: e0126832.

[22] Zafar U, Khaliq S, Ahmad HU, Manzoor S, Lone KP. Metabolic syndrome: an update on diagnostic criteria, pathogenesis, and genetic links. Hormones. 2018; 17: 299–313.

[23] Tricco AC, Lillie E, Zarin W, O'Brien KK, Colquhoun H, Levac D, et al. PRISMA extension for scoping reviews (PRISMA-ScR): checklist and explanation. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2018; 169: 467–473.

[24] Peters MDJ, Godfrey CM, Khalil H, McInerney P, Parker D, Soares CB. Guidance for conducting systematic scoping reviews. International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare. 2015; 13: 141–146.

[25] Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Executive summary of the third report of the national cholesterol education program (NCEP) expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA. 2001; 285: 2486–2497.

[26] Abdallah H, Khalil M, Farella I, JohnBritto JS, Lanza E, Santoro S, et al. Ramadan intermittent fasting reduces visceral fat and improves gastrointestinal motility. European Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2023; 53: e14029.

[27] Jarrar AH, Beasley JM, Ohuma EO, Cheikh Ismail L, Qeshta DA, Mohamad MN, et al. Effect of high fiber cereal intake on satiety and gastrointestinal symptoms during Ramadan. Nutrients. 2019; 11: 939.

[28] Guo Y, Luo S, Ye Y, Yin S, Fan J, Xia M. Intermittent fasting improves cardiometabolic risk factors and alters gut microbiota in metabolic syndrome patients. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2021; 106: 64–79.

2022; 2: 73–81.

[29] Kunduraci YE, Ozbek H. Does the energy restriction intermittent fasting diet alleviate metabolic syndrome biomarkers? A randomized controlled trial. Nutrients. 2020; 12: 3213.

[30] Madkour MI, Hassan RE, Sherif NM, Awadallah S, Abdelrahim DN, Jahrami HA, et al. Haptoglobin polymorphism modulates cardiometabolic impacts of four consecutive weeks, dawn to sunset Ramadan intermittent fasting among subjects with overweight/obesity. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 2022; 190: 110024.

[31] Faris MAE, Madkour MI, Obaideen AK, Dalah EZ, Hasan HA, Radwan H, et al. Effect of Ramadan diurnal fasting on visceral adiposity and serum adipokines in overweight and obese individuals. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 2019; 153: 166–175.

[32] Maaloul R, Marzougui H, Ben Dhia I, Ghroubi S, Tagougui S, Kallel C, et al. Effectiveness of Ramadan diurnal intermittent fasting and concurrent training in the management of obesity: is the combination worth the weight? Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases. 2023; 33: 659–666.

[33] Nachvak SM, Pasdar Y, Pirsaheb S, Darbandi M, Niazi P, Mostafai R, et al. Effects of Ramadan on food intake, glucose homeostasis, lipid profiles and body composition composition. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2019; 73: 594–600.

[34] Shariatpanahi ZV, Shariatpanahi MV, Shahbazi S, Hossaini A, Abadi A. Effect of Ramadan fasting on some indices of insulin resistance and components of the metabolic syndrome in healthy male adults. British Journal of Nutrition. 2008; 100: 147–151.

[35] Ganjali N, Mozaffari-Khosravi H, Afkhami-Ardakani M, Shahraki M, Fallahzadeh H. Effects of Islamic fasting on glucose and lipid profiles, body mass index, adiponectin and leptin levels in obese individuals. Journal of Fasting & Health. 2016; 4: 57–63.

[36] Pirsaheb S, Pasdar Y, Navabi SJ, Rezaei M, Darbandi M, Niazi P. Fasting consequences during Ramadan on lipid profile and dietary patterns. Journal of Nutrition, Fasting and Health. 2013; 1: 6–12.

[37] Akkoca M, Metin ZE, Topaloglu O, Tokgoz S, Cihan G, San I. An evaluation of the effects of Ramadan fasting on anthropometric, metabolic and endocrine parameters. Progress in Nutrition. 2018; 20: 503–509.

[38] Mindikoglu AL, Abdulsada MM, Jain A, Jalal PK, Devaraj S, Wilhelm ZR, et al. Intermittent fasting from dawn to sunset for four consecutive weeks induces anticancer serum proteome response and improves metabolic syndrome. Scientific Reports. 2020; 10: 18341.

[39] Khan N, Khan S. Effects of Ramadan fasting, physical activity, and dietary patterns on diabetic and hypertensive patients. Journal of Nutrition, Fasting & Health. 2022; 10: 26–35.

[40] Baba M, Goni BW, HarunaYusuph FB. Ramadan fasting: effect on the metabolic profile of healthy medical students in North East, Nigeria. Saudi Journal of Medicine. 2017; 2: 133–137.

[41] Nematy M, Alinezhad-Namaghi M, Rashed MM, Mozhdehifard M, Sajjadi SS, Akhlaghi S, et al. Effects of Ramadan fasting on cardiovascular risk factors: a prospective observational study. Nutrition Journal. 2012; 11: 69.

[42] Ongsara S, Boonpol S, Prompalad N, Jeenduang N. The effect of Ramadan fasting on biochemical parameters in healthy Thai subjects. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 2017; 11: BC14.

[43] Farag HAM, Baqi HR, Qadir SA, El Bilbeisi AH, Hamafarj KK, Taleb M, et al. Effects of Ramadan fasting on anthropometric measures, blood pressure, and lipid profile among hypertensive patients in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. SAGE Open Medicine. 2020; 8: 205031212096578.

[44] Sadiya A, Ahmed S, Siddieg HH, Babas IJ, Carlsson M. Effect of Ramadan fasting on metabolic markers, body composition, and dietary intake in Emiratis of Ajman (UAE) with metabolic syndrome. Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy. 2011; 4: 409–416.

[45] [91] Arabi SM, Hejri Zarifi S, Nematy M, Safarian M. The effect of Ramadan fasting on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients. Journal of Nutrition, Fasting and Health. 2015; 3: 74–80.

[46] Farooq A, Chamari K, Sayegh S, El Akoum M, Al-Mohannadi AS. Ramadan daily intermittent fasting reduces objectively assessed habitual physical activity among adults. BMC Public Health. 2021; 21: 1912.

[47] Adelina R, Paramastri R, Chao JC-J. Comparisons of anthropometric measures, dietary intakes, and lifestyle factors of young adult indonesian muslims during ramadan fasting and in regular days. International Journal of Medical Science and Clinical Research Studies.

[48] Alotaibi N, Aldriweesh MA, Alhasson MA, Albdah BA, Aldbas AA, Alluhidan WA, et al. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of ischemic stroke patients during Ramadan vs. non-Ramadan months: is there a difference? Frontiers in Neurology. 2022; 13: 925764.

[49] Piercy KL, Troiano RP, Ballard RM, Carlson SA, Fulton JE, Galuska DA, et al. The physical activity guidelines for Americans. JAMA. 2018; 320: 2020.

[50] Tsitsou S, Zacharodimos N, Poulia K-A, Karatzi K, Dimitriadis G, Papakonstantinou E. Effects of time-restricted feeding and ramadan fasting on body weight, body composition, glucose responses, and insulin resistance: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Nutrients. 2022; 14: 4778.

[51] Rahman S. Ramadan fasting and its health benefits: what’s new? Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences. 2022; 10: 1329–1342.

[52] Association AD. 5. Facilitating behavior change and well-being to improve health outcomes: standards of medical care in diabetes—2021. Diabetes Care. 2021; 44: S53–S72.

[53] Lucini D, Pagani M. Exercise prescription to foster health and well-being: a behavioral approach to transform barriers into opportunities. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18: 968.

[54] Shah JA, Rahman MU, Abdikaxarovich SA, Sikandar P, Yerjan AD. Impact of fasting on human health during Ramadan. International Journal of Public Health. 2023; 12: 1611–1625.

[55] Farshidfar G, Yousfi H, Vakili M, Noughabi FA. The effect of Ramadan fasting on hemoglobin, hematocrit and blood biochemical parameters. Journal of Research in Health Sciences. 2023; 6: 21–27.

[56] Graja A, Ghattassi K, Boudhina N, Bouzid MA, Chahed H, Ferchichi S, et al. Effect of Ramadan intermittent fasting on cognitive, physical and biochemical responses to strenuous short-term exercises in elite young female handball players. Physiology & Behavior. 2021; 229: 113241.

[57] Lessan N, Saadane I, Alkaf B, Hambly C, Buckley AJ, Finer N, et al. The effects of Ramadan fasting on activity and energy expenditure. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2018; 107: 54–61.

[58] El-Jaziz A, Lotfi S. Chronotype, Aerobic performance, and sleep quality of young athletes before and during Ramadan observance. Sleep Medicine Research. 2023; 14: 98–104.

[59] Bakhotmah BA. The puzzle of self-reported weight gain in a month of fasting (Ramadan) among a cohort of Saudi families in Jeddah, Western Saudi Arabia. Nutrition Journal. 2011; 10: 84.

[60] Meckel Y, Ismaeel A, Eliakim A. The effect of the Ramadan fast on physical performance and dietary habits in adolescent soccer players. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2008; 102: 651–657.

[61] Sulaiman SK, Tsiga-Ahmed FIi, Arora T, Faris ME, Musa MS, Kareem YA, et al. Changes in the mental wellbeing among Nigerians due to Ramadan intermittent fasting: a nationwide cross-sectional study. Available at: https://assets.researchsquare.com/files/rs-1486892/v1/28462a25-49cf-4eaa-9e74-29403e6b8237.pdf?c=1653943935, Accessed: (8 October 2023).

[62] Faris M, Madkour M, Al Bustanji Y, Semreen M, Giddey AD, Soares NC, et al. Ramadan diurnal intermittent fasting is associated with significant plasma metabolomics changes in subjects with overweight and obese: a prospective cohort study. Frontiers in Nutrition. 2023; 9: 108730.

[63] Shatila H, Baroudi M, El Sayed Ahmad R, Chehab R, Forman MR, Abbas N, et al. Impact of Ramadan fasting on dietary intakes among healthy adults: a year-round comparative study. Frontiers in Nutrition. 2021; 8: 689788.

[64] Al-Maiman RS, Al-Orf SM, Bawazeer NM. Impact of fasting during Ramadan on daily habits, diet and body weight of individuals with diabetes: a sample of Saudi Arabia. Malaysian Journal of Medicine & Health Sciences. 2022; 18: 141–149.

[65] Alzhrani A, Alhussain MH, BaHammam AS. Changes in dietary intake, chronotype and sleep pattern upon Ramadan among healthy adults in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: a prospective study. Frontiers in Nutrition. 2022; 9: 966861.

[66] Boukhris O, Hill DW, Ammar A, Trabelsi K, Hsouna H, Abdessalem R, et al. Longer nap duration during ramadan observance positively impacts 5-m shuttle run test performance performed in the afternoon. Frontiers in Physiology. 2022; 13: 811435.

[67] Bahammam A. Does Ramadan fasting affect sleep? International Journal of Clinical Practice. 2006; 60: 1631–1637.

[68] Alwalweedi AA. Physical activity and sleep patterns during the month of Ramadan [master’s thesis]. ETD Archive. 2021.

[69] Saleh Mans KM. Study the effects of Ramadan fasting on the serum glucose and lipid profile among healthy Jordanian students. American Journal of Applied Sciences. 2007; 4: 565–569.

[70] [61] Chasens ER, Imes CC, Kariuki JK, Luyster FS, Morris JL, DiNardo MM, et al. Sleep and metabolic syndrome. Nursing Clinics of North America. 2021; 56: 203–217.

[71] [62] Xie J, Li Y, Zhang Y, Vgontzas AN, Basta M, Chen B, et al. Sleep duration and metabolic syndrome: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Sleep Medicine Reviews. 2021; 59: 101451.

[72] Qasrawi SO, Pandi-Perumal SR, BaHammam AS. The effect of intermittent fasting during Ramadan on sleep, sleepiness, cognitive function, and circadian rhythm. Sleep and Breathing. 2017; 21: 577–586.

[73] BaHammam AS, Alaseem AM, Alzakri AA, Sharif MM. The effects of Ramadan fasting on sleep patterns and daytime sleepiness: an objective assessment. Journal of Research in Medical Sciences. 2013; 18: 127.

[74] Bass J, Turek FW. Sleepless in America. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2005; 165: 15.

[75] Jennings JR, Muldoon MF, Hall M, Buysse DJ, Manuck SB. Self-reported sleep quality is associated with the metabolic syndrome. Sleep. 2007; 30: 219–223.

[76] Hall MH, Muldoon MF, Jennings JR, Buysse DJ, Flory JD, Manuck SB. Self-reported sleep duration is associated with the metabolic syndrome in midlife adults. Sleep. 2008; 31: 635–643.

[77] Wang Y, Zhao Q, Hamulati X, Tuerxun G, Mutalifu M, Li X, et al. Association between sleep quality/physical activity and metabolic syndrome in urban population of Xinjiang. Chinese Journal of Cardiology. 2023; 51: 963–969. (In Chinese)

[78] Amirfaiz S, Shahril MR. Objectively measured physical activity, sedentary behavior, and metabolic syndrome in adults: systematic review of observational evidence. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders. 2019; 17: 1–21.

[79] Haghdoost A, Poorranjbar M. The interaction between physical activity and fasting on the serum lipid profile during Ramadan. Singapore Medical Journal. 2009; 50: 897–901.

[80] Jahrami H, Trabelsi K, Alhaj OA, Saif Z, Pandi-Perumal SR, BaHammam AS. The impact of Ramadan fasting on the metabolic syndrome severity in relation to ethnicity and sex: results of a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases. 2022; 32: 2714–2729.

[81] Aljaloud KS. The effect of Ramadan fasting on metabolic syndrome (MetS). Blood Glucose Levels. 2019;

[82] Peiris CL, Gallagher A, Taylor NF, McLean S. Behavior change techniques improve adherence to physical activity recommendations for adults with metabolic syndrome: a systematic review. Patient Preference and Adherence. 2023; 17: 689–697.

[83] Correia JM, Santos I, Pezarat-Correia P, Silva AM, Mendonca GV. Effects of ramadan and non-ramadan intermittent fasting on body composition: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Frontiers in Nutrition. 2021; 7: 625240.

[84] Oueslati I, Kardi A, Boukhayatia F, Hammami B, Cheikh M, Romdhane NB, et al. Impact of Ramadan intermittent fasting on metabolic and inflammatory profiles in type 2 diabetic patients. Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders. 2022; 21: 751–758.

[85] Barakat I, Chamlal H, El jamal S, Elayachi M, Belahsen R. Food expenditure and food consumption before and during Ramadan in Moroccan Households. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism. 2020; 2020: 1–7.

[86] Fernando HA, Zibellini J, Harris RA, Seimon RV, Sainsbury A. Effect of Ramadan fasting on weight and body composition in healthy non-athlete adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrients. 2019; 11: 478.

[87] Al-Rawi N, Madkour M, Jahrami H, Salahat D, Alhasan F, BaHammam A, et al. Effect of diurnal intermittent fasting during Ramadan on ghrelin, leptin, melatonin, and cortisol levels among overweight and obese subjects: a prospective observational study. PLOS ONE. 2020; 15: e0237922.

[88] Hammoud S, Saad I, Karam R, Abou Jaoude F, van den Bemt BJF, Kurdi M. Impact of Ramadan intermittent fasting on the heart rate variability and cardiovascular parameters of patients with controlled hypertension. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism. 2021; 2021: 1–10.

[89] Ajibola AA, Azeez AO, Ajibola A. The beneficial effects of Ramadan fasting from the medical and sociocultural perspectives. Journal of Fasting & Health. 2021; 9: 1–13.

[90] Hallak M, Nomani M. Body weight loss and changes in blood lipid levels in normal men on hypocaloric diets during Ramadan fasting. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1988; 48: 1197–1210.

[91] Albrink M, Ullrich I. Interaction of dietary sucrose and fiber on serum lipids in healthy young men fed high carbohydrate diets. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1986; 43: 419–428.

[92] Khan MA, BaHammam AS, Amanatullah A, Obaideen K, Arora T, Ali H, et al. Examination of sleep in relation to dietary and lifestyle behaviors during Ramadan: a multi-national study using structural equation modeling among 24,500 adults amid COVID-19. Frontiers in Nutrition. 2023; 10: 1040355.

[93] Trabelsi K, Ammar A, Glenn JM, Boukhris O, Khacharem A, Bouaziz B, et al. Does observance of Ramadan affect sleep in athletes and physically active individuals? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Sleep Research. 2022; 31: e13503.

[94] Lipert A, Kozłowski R, Rasmus P, Marczak M, Timler M, Timler D, et al. Sleep quality and performance in professional athletes fasting during the month of Ramadan. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18: 6890.

[95] Arora G, Uppal M, Alzaidan HIM, Alduhaiman KA. Influence of ramadan fasting on the fatigue levels and sleep patterns among dentists in Qassim region, Saudi Arabia—a cross-sectional study. Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology. 2023; 30: 287–296.

[96] Gangwisch JE. A review of evidence for the link between sleep duration and hypertension. American Journal of Hypertension. 2014; 27: 1235–1242.

[97] Zimmet P, Alberti KGMM, Stern N, Bilu C, El‐Osta A, Einat H, et al. The circadian syndrome: is the metabolic syndrome and much more! Journal of Internal Medicine. 2019; 286: 181–191.

[98] Alkhulaifi F, Darkoh C. Meal timing, meal frequency and metabolic syndrome. Nutrients. 2022; 14: 1719.

[99] Faris MA, Jahrami H, BaHammam A, Kalaji Z, Madkour M, Hassanein M. A systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression of the impact of diurnal intermittent fasting during Ramadan on glucometabolic markers in healthy subjects. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 2020; 165: 108226.

[100] Faris MAE, Jahrami HA, Alhayki FA, Alkhawaja NA, Ali AM, Aljeeb SH, et al. Effect of diurnal fasting on sleep during Ramadan: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sleep and Breathing. 2020; 24: 771–782.

[101] Almeneessier AS, Pandi-Perumal SR, BaHammam AS. Intermittent fasting, insufficient sleep, and circadian rhythm: interaction and effects on the cardiometabolic system. Current Sleep Medicine Reports. 2018; 4: 179–195.

[102] Almeneessier AS, BaHammam AS. How does diurnal intermittent fasting impact sleep, daytime sleepiness, and markers of the biological clock? Current insights. Nature and Science of Sleep. 2018; 10: 439–452.

[103] Bahijri S, Borai A, Ajabnoor G, Abdul Khaliq A, AlQassas I, Al-Shehri D, et al. Relative metabolic stability, but disrupted circadian cortisol secretion during the fasting month of Ramadan. PLOS ONE. 2013; 8: e60917.


Abstracted / indexed in

Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch) Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,200 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.

Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition aims to evaluate a journal’s value from multiple perspectives including the journal impact factor, descriptive data about a journal’s open access content as well as contributing authors, and provide readers a transparent and publisher-neutral data & statistics information about the journal.

Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) DOAJ is a unique and extensive index of diverse open access journals from around the world, driven by a growing community, committed to ensuring quality content is freely available online for everyone.

SCImago The SCImago Journal & Country Rank is a publicly available portal that includes the journals and country scientific indicators developed from the information contained in the Scopus® database (Elsevier B.V.)

Publication Forum - JUFO (Federation of Finnish Learned Societies) Publication Forum is a classification of publication channels created by the Finnish scientific community to support the quality assessment of academic research.

Scopus: CiteScore 0.7 (2022) Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.

Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers Search for publication channels (journals, series and publishers) in the Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers to see if they are considered as scientific. (https://kanalregister.hkdir.no/publiseringskanaler/Forside).

Submission Turnaround Time

Conferences

Top