Self-efficacy and social support as protective variables that predict resistance to gravity in suicidal attempts
1Department of Personality, Assessment and Psychological Treatment, Faculty of Psychology, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
2,The Spanish Society of Suicidology
3,The Spanish Society of Clinical and Health Psychology
4Department of Psychology, University of Jaen, 23071 Jaen, Spain
5Department of Evolutionary Educational Psychology, University of Granada, 51005 Ceuta, Spain
DOI: 10.31083/j.jomh1803071 Vol.18,Issue 3,March 2022 pp.1-5
Submitted: 07 November 2021 Accepted: 01 December 2021
Published: 31 March 2022
*Corresponding Author(s): María Auxiliadora Robles-Bello E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
*Corresponding Author(s): José Antonio Camacho-Conde E-mail: email@example.com
Background: Suicide attempts (SA) is a global mental health problem, especially in Spain. Classical research has focused on determining the risk variables; however, few studies focused on protective variables. The aim was to assess which protective variables are more predictive of the greater or lesser lethality of a made SA. Methods: The sample consisted of 156 people who had been admitted to Emergency Department (ED) for SA, aged between 18 and 49 years Mean (M) = 26, Standard Deviation (SD) = ± 10.8. The sample was divided into three groups defined according to the level of lethality of the made SA. Protective variables related to resilience were assessed. Results: The results suggest that self-efficacy and social support are protective predictors for future SA, along with being male. The protective variables explain the degree of lower suicide lethality, with the model proposed (set of independent variables) being significant and explaining between 0.12 and 0.68 of the dependent variable, correctly classifying 84.8% of the cases (R2 de Nagelkerke = 0.76). Conclusions: This study is further evidence of the need for effective suicide prevention and intervention plans adapted to gender differences in behaviour and further research in this line of work. Future studies on large patient samples are now needed, especially with a longitudinal design.
Suicidal attempt; Protective factors; Resilience; Medical serious suicidal attempts; Lethality; Spanish population
David Sánchez-Teruel',María Auxiliadora Robles-Bello,José Antonio Camacho-Conde. Self-efficacy and social support as protective variables that predict resistance to gravity in suicidal attempts. Journal of Men's Health. 2022. 18(3);1-5.
 World Health Organization (WHO). National suicide prevention strategies: Progress, examples and indicators. Available at: https://www.who.int/mental_health/suicide-prevention/national_strategies_2019/en/ (Accessed: 25 February 2021).
 World Health Organization (WHO). Preventing suicide: A global imperative (Spanish version). World Health Organiza-tion: Washington, DC. 2014.
 Nock MK, Borges G, Bromet EJ, Alonso J, Angermeyer M, Beautrais A, et al. Cross-national prevalence and risk factors for suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. The British Journal of Psy-chiatry. 2008; 192: 98–105.
 Lim KS, Wong CH, McIntyre RS, Wang J, Zhang Z, Tran BX, et al. Global lifetime and 12-month prevalence of suicidal behav-ior, deliberate self-harm and non-suicidal self-injury in children and adolescents between 1989 and 2018: a meta-analysis. Inter-national Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16: 4581.
 Mergl R, Koburger N, Heinrichs K, Székely A, Tóth MD, Coyne J, et al. What are Reasons for the Large Gender Differences in the Lethality of Suicidal Acts? An Epidemiological Analysis in Four European Countries. PLoS ONE. 2015; 10: e0129062.
 Ostertag L, Golay P, Dorogi Y, Brovelli S, Bertran M, Cromec I, et al. The implementation and first insights of the French-speaking Swiss programme for monitoring self-harm. Swiss Medical Weekly. 2019; 149: w20016.
 Castillejos MC, Huertas P, Martín P, Moreno Küstner B. Preva-lence of suicidality in the European general population: a sys-tematic review and meta-analysis. Archives of Suicide Research. 2021; 25: 810–828.
 Navarro-Gómez N. El suicidio en jóvenes en España: cifras y posibles causas. análisis de los últimos datos disponibles. ClíNica Y Salud. 2017; 28: 25–31.
 Sánchez-Teruel D, Robles-Bello MA, Camacho-Conde JA. Self-inflicted injuries in adolescents and young adults: A longitudinal approach. Psicothema. 2020; 32: 322–328.
 Aizpurua E, Caravaca-Sánchez F, Taliaferro LA. Suicidality among college students in Spain: prevalence and associations with substance use, social support, and resilience. Death Stud-ies. 2021. (in press)
 Lopez-Castroman J, Baca-Garcia E, Woreca Authors, Courtet P, Oquendo MA. A Cross-National Tool for Assessing and Study-ing Suicidal Behaviors. Archives of Suicide Research. 2015; 19: 335–349.
 Gvion Y, Levi-Belz Y. Serious Suicide Attempts: Systematic Review of Psychological Risk Factors. Frontiers in Psychiatry. 2018; 9: 56.
 Giner L, Jaussent I, Olié E, Béziat S, Guillaume S, Baca-Garcia E, et al. Violent and serious suicide attempters: one step closer to suicide? The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2014; 75: e191–e197.
 Beghi M, Rosenbaum JF. Risk factors for fatal and nonfatal rep-etition of suicide attempt: a critical appraisal. Current Opinion in Psychiatry. 2010; 23: 349–355.
 Harrison DP, Stritzke WG, Fay N, Ellison TM, Hudaib AR. Probing the implicit suicidal mind: Does the Death/Suicide Im-plicit Association Test reveal a desire to die, or a diminished desire to live? Psychological Assessment. 2014; 26: 831.
 Meadows LA, Kaslow NJ, Thompson MP, Jurkovic GJ. Protec-tive factors against suicide attempt risk among African Amer-ican women experiencing intimate partner violence. American Journal of Community Psychology. 2005; 36: 109–121.
 Hashemi-Aliabadi S, Jalali A, Rahmati M, Salari N. Group rem-iniscence for hope and resilience in care-seekers who have at-tempted suicide. Annals of General Psychiatry. 2020; 19: 4.
 Sher L. Resilience as a focus of suicide research and prevention. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 2019; 140: 169–180.
 Tsirigotis K, Gruszczynski W, Lewik-Tsirigotis M. Manifesta-tions of indirect self-destructiveness and methods of suicide at-tempts. The Psychiatric Quarterly. 2013; 84: 197–208.
 Yur’yev A, Yur’yeva L, Värnik P, Lumiste K, Värnik A. The complex impact of risk and protective factors on suicide mor-tality: a study of the Ukrainian general population. Archives of Suicide Research. 2015; 19: 249–259
 Joo S, Wang S, Kim T, Seo H, Jeong J, Han J, et al. Factors associated with suicide completion: a comparison between sui-cide attempters and completers. Asia-Pacific Psychiatry. 2016; 8: 80–86.
 Holman MS, Williams MN. Suicide risk and protective factors: A network approach. Archives of Suicide Research. 2020. (in press)
 Cole-King A, Green G, Gask L, Hines K, Platt S. Suicide mitiga-tion: a compassionate approach to suicide prevention. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment. 2013; 19: 276–283.
 Smith R. School Mental Health Providers Self-efficacy in Man-aging Suicide. Appalachian State University. 2019.
 Kim SM, Kim HR, Min KJ, Yoo S, Shin Y, Kim E, et al. Re-silience as a Protective Factor for Suicidal Ideation among Ko-rean Workers. Psychiatry Investigation. 2020; 17: 147–156.
 Liu DWY, Fairweather-Schmidt AK, Roberts RM, Burns R, Anstey KJ. Does resilience predict suicidality? A lifespan anal-ysis. Archives of Suicide Research. 2014; 18: 453–464.
 Beck AT, Resnik HL, Lettieri DJ. The prediction of suicide. Charles Press Publishers: Bowie, MD. 1974.
 García-Nieto R, Parra Uribe I, Palao D, Lopez-Castroman J, Sáiz PA, García-Portilla MP, et al. Protocolo breve de evaluación del suicidio: fiabilidad interexaminadores. Revista De Psiquiatría Y Salud Mental. 2012; 5: 24–36.
 Pulgar-Buendía A. Validación de la Escala de Apoyo Social AS-25 [Validation of the Social Support Scale AS-25] [Unpublished Doctoral Thesis]. University of Jaén. 2010.
 Scheier MF, Carver CS, Bridges MW. Distinguishing opti-mism from neuroticism (and trait anxiety, self-mastery, and self-esteem): a reevaluation of the Life Orientation Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1994; 67: 1063–1078.
 Otero-López J, Luengo A, Romero E, Gómez J, Castro C. Psi-cología de la personalidad. Manual de prácticas. Barcelona: Ariel Practicum. 1998.
 Godoy-Izquierdo D, Godoy-García JF, López-Chicheri García I, Martínez Delgado A, Gutiérrez Jiménez S, Vázquez Vázquez L. Psychometric Properties of the Self-Efficacy Scale for Coping with Stress. Psicothema. 2008; 20: 155–165.
 Herth K. Abbreviated instrument to measure hope: develop-ment and psychometric evaluation. Journal of Advanced Nurs-ing. 1992; 17: 1251–1259.
 Sánchez-Teruel D, Robles-Bello MA, Camacho-Conde JA. Va-lidity of the spanish version of the Herth Hope Index and The Beck Hopelessness Scale in people who have attempted suicide. Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría. 2020; 48: 163–168.
 Wagnild GM. The Resilience Scale User’s Guide for the US En-glish version of the Resilience Scale and the 14-Item Resilience Scale. The Resilience Center: Worden, Montana (USA). 2009.
 Sánchez-Teruel D, Robles-Bello MA. 14-item Resilience Scale (RS-14): Psychometric Properties of the Spanish Version. Re-vista Iberoamericana de Diagnóstico y Evaluación-e Avaliação Psicológica (RIDEP). 2015; 2: 103–113.
 Sánchez-Teruel D, Robles-Bello MA, García-León A, Muela-Martínez JA. Psychometric properties and diagnostic capacity of the scale of resilience to suicide attempts-18. Psychology & Health. 2021. (in press)
 Graham JW. Missing data: Analysis and design. Springer: New York. 2012.
 Kleinbaum DG, Kupper LL, Muller KE. Variable reduction and factor analysis. Applied regression analysis and other multivari-able methods. PWS-Kent Publishing Co: Boston. 1988.
 Yoo W, Mayberry R, Bae S, Singh K, Peter He Q, Lillard JW. A Study of Effects of MultiCollinearity in the Multivariable Analysis. International Journal of Applied Science and Technology. 2019; 4: 9–19.
 Nakagawa M, Kawanishi C, Yamada T, Iwamoto Y, Sato R, Hasegawa H, et al. Characteristics of suicide attempters with family history of suicide attempt: a retrospective chart review. BMC Psychiatry. 2009; 9: 32.
 Richie FJ, Bonner J, Wittenborn A, Weinstock LM, Zlotnick C, Johnson JE. Social Support and Suicidal Ideation among Pris-oners with Major Depressive Disorder. Archives of Suicide Re-search. 2021; 25: 107–114.
 Costanza A, Ambrosetti J, Wyss K, Bondolfi G, Sarasin F, Khan A. Preventing suicide in emergencies: from “Interpersonal Sui-cide Theory” to connectedness. Revue Médicale Suisse. 2018; 14: 335–338.
 Conversano C, Rotondo A, Lensi E, Della Vista O, Arpone F, Reda MA. Optimism and its impact on mental and physical well-being. Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health. 2010; 6: 25–29.
 Hirsch JK, Wolford K, LaLonde SM, Brunk L, Morris AP. Dis-positional Optimism as a Moderator of the Relationship between Negative Life Events and Suicide Ideation and Attempts. Cog-nitive Therapy and Research. 2007; 31: 533–546
 Ministerio de Sanidad, Política Social e Igualdad. Mental health strategy 2009–2018 National Health. Ministerio de Sanidad, Política Social e Igualdad: Madrid. 2011.
 Steeg S, Haigh M, Webb RT, Kapur N, Awenat Y, Gooding P, et al. The exacerbating influence of hopelessness on other known risk factors for repeat self-harm and suicide. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2016; 190: 522–528.
 Sánchez-Teruel D, Lucena Jurado V, Robles-Bello MA. Protec-tive factors for suicide reattempt in addictive disorders. In Pro-ceedings of Uso y abuso de drogas y otros adictivos: jóvenes, vulnerabilidad y activos para la salud: I Jornadas Internacionales de Trabajo [I Working Conference on Use and Abuse of Drugs and Other Addictive Substances]. Ediciones Egregius: Seville. 2019.
 Liu S, You J, Ying J, Li X, Shi Q. Emotion reactivity, nonsuicidal self-injury, and regulatory emotional self-efficacy: a moderated mediation model of suicide ideation. Journal of Affective Dis-orders. 2020; 266: 82–89.
Vol., Issue , Invalid dateTable of contents
Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch) Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,200 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.
Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition aims to evaluate a journal’s value from multiple perspectives including the journal impact factor, descriptive data about a journal’s open access content as well as contributing authors, and provide readers a transparent and publisher-neutral data & statistics information about the journal.
Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) DOAJ is a unique and extensive index of diverse open access journals from around the world, driven by a growing community, committed to ensuring quality content is freely available online for everyone.
SCImago The SCImago Journal & Country Rank is a publicly available portal that includes the journals and country scientific indicators developed from the information contained in the Scopus® database (Elsevier B.V.)
Publication Forum - JUFO (Federation of Finnish Learned Societies) Publication Forum is a classification of publication channels created by the Finnish scientific community to support the quality assessment of academic research.
Scopus CiteScore 0.7 (2021) Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.
Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers Search for publication channels (journals, series and publishers) in the Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers to see if they are considered as scientific. (https://kanalregister.hkdir.no/publiseringskanaler/Forside).