Article Data

  • Views 225
  • Dowloads 109

Original Research

Open Access Special Issue

Plantar loads characteristics of male non-rearfoot strikers running on different overground surfaces at preferred speed

  • Zhangqi Lai1,†,
  • Min Liu2,†,
  • Lin Wang1,*,
  • Zhiwang Zhang1,*,

1Shanghai Frontiers Science Research Base of Exercise and Metabolic Health, Shanghai University of Sport, 200438 Shanghai, China

2Department of Rehabilitation Science, School of Health, Shanghai Normal University Tianhua College, 201815 Shanghai, China

DOI: 10.31083/j.jomh1805105 Vol.18,Issue 5,May 2022 pp.1-7

Submitted: 04 August 2021 Accepted: 23 September 2021

Published: 31 May 2022

(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and sports in men: from health to sports performance)

*Corresponding Author(s): Lin Wang E-mail:
*Corresponding Author(s): Zhiwang Zhang E-mail:

† These authors contributed equally.


Background: This study aimed to investigate the plantar loads of male non-rearfoot strike runners running on different overground surfaces at their preferred speeds. Methods: A total of 32 male runners with non-rearfoot strike were required to run for 15 m on concrete, synthetic rubber and grass surfaces at their preferred speeds. An insole sensor system was used to determine the runners’ foot strike pattern and measure peak pressure, pressure-time integral, maximum force, force-time integral and contact area of the total foot and nine selected foot regions. Results: No significant differences on their preferred speeds were observed running on concrete, synthetic rubber and grass surfaces. No significant differences on plantar loads parameters of the total foot were found when running on the three overground surfaces. Running on concrete showed higher peak pressure in the lateral forefoot compared with grass and synthetic rubber (283.49 kPa vs. 264.31 kPa, P < 0.023; 283.49 kPa vs. 263.18 kPa, P < 0.019, respectively). Maximum force in the medial forefoot was lower when running on concrete compared with grass and synthetic rubber (40.16 %BW vs. 42.52 %BW, P < 0.042; 40.16 %BW vs. 43.21 %BW, P < 0.022, respectively). Conclusions: Repetitive and excessive plantar loads during long-distance running may result in loads-related injury in lower extremity skeletal tissues for non-rearfoot runners at preferred speeds. Therefore, male non-rearfoot strikers should choose the appropriate overground surface to reduce the risk of lower extremity musculoskeletal injuries.


Male non-rearfoot striker; Running; Plantar loads

Cite and Share

Zhangqi Lai,Min Liu,Lin Wang,Zhiwang Zhang. Plantar loads characteristics of male non-rearfoot strikers running on different overground surfaces at preferred speed. Journal of Men's Health. 2022. 18(5);1-7.


[1] Tschopp M, Brunner F. Diseases and overuse injuries of the lower extremities in long distance runners. Zeitschrift fur Rheumatologie. 2017; 76: 443–450.

[2] Van Middelkoop M, Kolkman J, Van Ochten J, Bierma-Zeinstra SMA, Koes B. Prevalence and incidence of lower extremity injuries in male marathon runners. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 2008; 18: 140–144.

[2] Van Gent RN, Siem D, Van Middelkoop M, Van Os AG, Bierma-Zeinstra SMA, Koes BW. Incidence and determinants of lower extremity running injuries in long distance runners: a systematic review. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2007; 41: 469–480.

[2] Vannatta CN, Heinert BL, Kernozek TW. Biomechanical risk factors for running-related injury differ by sample population: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Biomechanics. 2020; 75: 104991.

[5] Nigg BM, Baltich J, Hoerzer S, Enders H. Running shoes and running injuries: mythbusting and a proposal for two new paradigms: ‘preferred movement path’ and ‘comfort filter’. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2016; 49: 1290–1294.

[6] Hreljac A. Impact and overuse injuries in runners. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2004; 36: 845–849.

[7] Tessutti V, Ribeiro AP, Trombini-Souza F, Sacco ICN. Attenu-ation of foot pressure during running on four different surfaces: asphalt, concrete, rubber, and natural grass. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2013; 30: 1545–1550.

[8] Wang L, Hong Y, Li J, Zhou J. Comparison of plantar loads dur-ing running on different overground surfaces. Research in Sports Medicine. 2012; 20: 75–85.

[9] Schütte KH, Aeles J, De Beéck TO, van der Zwaard BC, Ven-ter R, Vanwanseele B. Surface effects on dynamic stability and loading during outdoor running using wireless trunk accelerom-etry. Gait & Posture. 2017; 48: 220–225.

[10] Sultan O, Nuhmani S, Muaidi QI. Comparison of plantar loading patterns on natural grass and artificial turf during various athletic activities. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. 2021; 61: 680–686.

[11] Tessutti V, Trombini-Souza F, Ribeiro AP, Nunes AL, Sacco IDCN. In-shoe plantar pressure distribution during running on natural grass and asphalt in recreational runners. Journal of Sci-ence and Medicine in Sport. 2010; 13: 151–155.

[12] Boey H, Aeles J, Schütte K, Vanwanseele B. The effect of three surface conditions, speed and running experience on vertical acceleration of the tibia during running. Sports Biomechanics. 2017; 16: 166–176.

[13] Firminger CR, Vernillo G, Savoldelli A, Stefanyshyn DJ, Millet GY, Edwards WB. Joint kinematics and ground reaction forces in overground versus treadmill graded running. Gait & Posture. 2018; 63: 109–113.

[14] Dixon SJ, Collop AC, Batt ME. Surface effects on ground reac-tion forces and lower extremity kinematics in running. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2001; 32: 1919–1926.

[15] Hollis CR, Koldenhoven RM, Resch JE, Hertel J. Running biomechanics as measured by wearable sensors: effects of speed and surface. Sports Biomechanics. 2021; 5: 521–531.

[16] Becker J, Nakajima M, Wu WFW. Factors contributing to medial tibial stress syndrome in runners: a prospective study. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2019; 50: 2092–2100.

[17] Queen RM, Abbey AN, Chuckpaiwong B, Nunley JA. Plantar loading comparisons between women with a history of second metatarsal stress fractures and normal controls. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 2009; 37: 390–395.

[18] Razak AHA, Zayegh A, Begg RK, Wahab Y. Foot plantar pres-sure measurement system: a review. Sensors. 2013; 12: 9884–9912.

[19] Thijs Y, De Clercq D, Roosen P, Witvrouw E. Gait-related in-trinsic risk factors for patellofemoral pain in novice recreational runners. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2008; 42: 466–471.

[20] Hesar NGZ, Van Ginckel A, Cools A, Peersman W, Roosen P, De Clercq D, et al. A prospective study on gait-related intrinsic risk factors for lower leg overuse injuries. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2009; 43: 1057–1061.

[21] Zhou W, Lai Z, Mo S, Wang L. Effects of overground surfaces on running kinematics and kinetics in habitual non-rearfoot strikers. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2021; 16: 1822–1829.

[22] Fu W, Fang Y, Liu DMS, Wang L, Ren S, Liu Y. Surface ef-fects on in-shoe plantar pressure and tibial impact during run-ning. Journal of Sport and Health Science. 2015; 4: 384–390.

[23] Almonroeder T, Willson JD, Kernozek TW. The effect of foot strike pattern on achilles tendon load during running. Annals of Biomedical Engineering. 2013; 41: 1758–1766.

[24] Hong Y, Wang L, Li JX, Zhou JH. Comparison of plantar loads during treadmill and overground running. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 2012; 15: 554–560.

[25] Dorn TW, Schache AG, Pandy MG. Muscular strategy shift in human running: dependence of running speed on hip and ankle muscle performance. Journal of Experimental Biology. 2012; 215: 1944–1956.

[26] Phinyomark A, Hettinga BA, Osis ST, Ferber R. Gender and age-related differences in bilateral lower extremity mechanics during treadmill running. PloS One. 2015; 9: e105246.

[27] Wei Z, Zhang Z, Jiang J, Zhang Y, Wang L. Comparison of plan-tar loads among runners with different strike patterns. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2019; 37: 2152–2158.

[28] Zhang ZW, Zhang Y, Fu WJ, Wei Z, Jiang JY, Wang L. Plantar loads of habitual forefoot strikers during running on different

overground surfaces. Applied Sciences. 2020; 10: 2271.

[29] Wei Z, Zhang Z, Jiang J, Zhang Y, Wang L. Comparison of plan-tar loads among runners with different strike patterns. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2019; 37: 2152–2158.

[30] Ghena DR, Kurth AL, Thomas M, Mayhew J. Torque character-istics of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles during concentric and eccentric loading. The Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy. 2012; 14: 149–154.

[31] Hannigan JJ, Pollard CD. Differences in running biomechanics between a maximal, traditional, and minimal running shoe. Jour-nal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 2020; 23: 15–19.

[32] Wei Z, Li JX, Fu W, Wang L. Plantar load characteristics among runners with different strike patterns during preferred speed. Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness. 2020; 18: 89–93.

[33] Cooper DM, Leissring SK, Kernozek TW. Plantar loading and foot-strike pattern changes with speed during barefoot running in those with a natural rearfoot strike pattern while shod. The Foot. 2016; 25: 89–96.

[34] Altman AR, Davis IS. A kinematic method for footstrike pattern detection in barefoot and shod runners. Gait & Posture. 2012; 35: 298–300.

[35] Price C, Parker D, Nester C. Validity and repeatability of three in-shoe pressure measurement systems. Gait & Posture. 2016; 46: 69–74.

[36] Ferris DP, Liang K, Farley CT. Runners adjust leg stiffness for their first step on a new running surface. Journal of Biomechan-ics. 1999; 32: 787–794.

[37] Hardin EC, Van Den Bogert AJ, Hamill J. Kinematic adapta-tions during running: effects of footwear, surface, and duration. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2004; 30: 838–844.

[38] Thompson MA, Lee SS, Seegmiller J, McGowan CP. Kine-matic and kinetic comparison of barefoot and shod running in mid/forefoot and rearfoot strike runners. Gait & Posture. 2015; 41: 957–959.

[39] Dolenec A, Štirn I, Strojnik V. Activation pattern of lower leg muscles in running on asphalt, gravel and grass. Collegium Antropologicum. 2015; 39: 167–172.

[40] Becker J, Pisciotta E, James S, Osternig LR, Chou L. Center of pressure trajectory differences between shod and barefoot run-ning. Gait & Posture. 2014; 40: 504–509.

[41] Nicola TL, Jewison DJ. The anatomy and biomechanics of run-ning. Clinics in Sports Medicine. 2012; 31: 187–201.

[42] Willwacher S, Fischer KM, Rohr E, Trudeau MB, Hamill J, Brüggemann G. Surface stiffness and footwear affect the load-ing stimulus for lower extremity muscles when running. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2020. [Preprint]

[43] Iwamoto J, Takeda T. Stress fractures in athletes: review of 196 cases. Journal of Orthopaedic Science. 2003; 8: 273–278.

[44] Thomson A, Akenhead R, Whiteley R, D’Hooghe P, Van Alsenoy K, Bleakley C. Fifth metatarsal stress fracture in elite male football players: an on-field analysis of plantar loading. BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine. 2019; 4: e000377.

[45] Chen TL, Wong DW, Wang Y, Lin J, Zhang M. Foot arch de-formation and plantar fascia loading during running with rear-foot strike and forefoot strike: a dynamic finite element analysis. Journal of Biomechanics. 2019; 83: 260–272.

[46] Oliveira AS, Gizzi L, Ketabi S, Farina D, Kersting UG. Modular control of treadmill vs overground running. PloS One. 2016; 11: e0153307.

[47] Cheung RTH, Wong RYL, Chung TKW, Choi RT, Leung WWY, Shek DHY. Relationship between foot strike pattern, running speed, and footwear condition in recreational distance runners. Sports Biomechanics. 2017; 16: 238–247.

Abstracted / indexed in

Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch) Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,200 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.

Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition aims to evaluate a journal’s value from multiple perspectives including the journal impact factor, descriptive data about a journal’s open access content as well as contributing authors, and provide readers a transparent and publisher-neutral data & statistics information about the journal.

Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) DOAJ is a unique and extensive index of diverse open access journals from around the world, driven by a growing community, committed to ensuring quality content is freely available online for everyone.

SCImago The SCImago Journal & Country Rank is a publicly available portal that includes the journals and country scientific indicators developed from the information contained in the Scopus® database (Elsevier B.V.)

Publication Forum - JUFO (Federation of Finnish Learned Societies) Publication Forum is a classification of publication channels created by the Finnish scientific community to support the quality assessment of academic research.

Scopus CiteScore 0.7 (2021) Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.

Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers Search for publication channels (journals, series and publishers) in the Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers to see if they are considered as scientific. (

Submission Turnaround Time