Effects of a modified backpack model on ground reaction forces in children of different ages during walking and running
1Department of Sport Sciences, University of Beira Interior, 6201-001 Covilhã, Portugal
2Health Sciences and Human Development, Research Center in Sport Sciences, 6201-001 Covilhã, Portugal
33Department of Sports, Douro Higher Institute of Educational Sciences, 4560-481 Penafiel, Portugal
4Department of Sports, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal
5Navarrabiomed, Hospital Universitario de Navarra (HUN), Universidad Pública de Navarra (UPNA), 31006 Pamplona, Spain
DOI: 10.31083/j.jomh1805109 Vol.18,Issue 5,May 2022 pp.1-9
Submitted: 10 September 2021 Accepted: 17 November 2022
Published: 31 May 2022
*Corresponding Author(s): João Barbosa E-mail: email@example.com
Background: Backpacks are widely used by children to carry different objects and the literature supports that most backpacks contain excessive weight. To minimize the loading effects (i.e., ground reaction force), modified backpacks have been tested. However, the effects of elastics on shoulders straps are yet to be studied. Thus, the aim of this study was to test and compare the effect on the vertical ground reaction force of a standard backpack with a modified one with elastic straps while walking and running. Methods: 9 children (5 boys and 4 girls) were included in the group G-5 (age: 11.0
backpacks; modified straps; ground reaction forces; locomotion
João Barbosa,Mário C. Marques,Pedro Forte,Catarina C. Santos,Henrique P. Neiva,Mikel Izquierdo,Daniel A. Marinho. Effects of a modified backpack model on ground reaction forces in children of different ages during walking and running. Journal of Men's Health. 2022. 18(5);1-9.
 Chow DHK, Ou ZY, Wang XG, Lai A. Short-term effects of backpack load placement on spine deformation and reposition-ing error in schoolchildren. Ergonomics. 2010; 53: 56–64.
 Dockrell S, Simms C, Blake C. Schoolbag weight limit: can it be defined? The Journal of School Health. 2013; 83: 368–377.
 Hestbaek L, Leboeuf-Yde C, Kyvik KO, Manniche C. The course of low back pain from adolescence to adulthood: eight-year follow-up of 9600 twins. Spine. 2006; 31: 468–472.
 Barbosa J, Marques MC, Izquierdo M, Neiva HP, Barbosa TM, Ramírez-Vélez R, et al. Schoolbag weight carriage in Por-tuguese children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study com-paring possible influencing factors. BMC Pediatrics. 2019; 19: 157.
 Brzęk A, Dworrak T, Strauss M, Sanchis-Gomar F, Sabbah I, Dworrak B, et al. The weight of pupils’ schoolbags in early school age and its influence on body posture. BMC Muscu-loskeletal Disorders. 2017; 18: 117.
 Neuschwander TB, Cutrone J, Macias BR, Cutrone S, Murthy G, Chambers H, et al. The effect of backpacks on the lumbar spine in children: a standing magnetic resonance imaging study. Spine. 2010; 35: 83–88.
 Pau M, Corona F, Leban B, Pau M. Effects of backpack carriage on foot–ground relationship in children during upright stance. Gait & Posture. 2011; 33: 195–199.
 Chow DHK, Kwok MLY, Au-Yang ACK, Holmes AD, Cheng JCY, Yao FYD, et al. The effect of backpack load on the gait of normal adolescent girls. Ergonomics. 2005; 48: 642–656.
 Hong Y, Cheung C. Gait and posture responses to backpack load during level walking in children. Gait & Posture. 2003; 17: 28–33.
 Kim MH, Yi CH, Kwon OY, Cho SH, Yoo WG. Changes in neck muscle electromyography and forward head posture of children when carrying schoolbags. Ergonomics. 2008; 51: 890–901.
 Song Q, Yu B, Zhang C, Sun W, Mao D. Effects of backpack weight on posture, gait patterns and ground reaction forces of male children with obesity during stair descent. Research in Sports Medicine. 2014; 22: 172–184.
 Castro M, Abreu S, Sousa H, Machado L, Santos R, Vilas-Boas JP. Ground reaction forces and plantar pressure distribution dur-ing occasional loaded gait. Applied Ergonomics. 2013; 44: 503–509.
 Castro MP, Figueiredo MC, Abreu S, Sousa H, Machado L, San-tos R, et al. The influence of gait cadence on the ground reac-tion forces and plantar pressures during load carriage of young adults. Applied Ergonomics. 2015; 49: 41–46.
 Simpson KM, Munro BJ, Steele JR. Effects of prolonged load carriage on ground reaction forces, lower limb kinematics and spatio-temporal parameters in female recreational hikers. Er-gonomics. 2012; 55: 316–326.
 Chen X, Qu X. Effects of backpack load on stair gait in young male adults. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics. 2018; 67: 53–59.
 Donisi L, Coccia A, Amitrano F, Mercogliano L, Cesarelli G, D’Addio G. Backpack Influence on Kinematic Parameters re-lated to Timed up and Go (TUG) Test in School Children. 2020 IEEE International Symposium on Medical Measurements and Applications. 2020; 1–5.
 Donisi L, Amitrano F, Coccia A, Mercogliano L, Cesarelli G, D’Addio G. Influence of the Backpack on School Children’s Gait: a Statistical and Machine Learning Approach. European Medical and Biological Engineering Conference. 2021; 20: 682–688.
 Ahmad HN, Barbosa TM. The effects of backpack carriage on gait kinematics and kinetics of schoolchildren. Scientific Re-ports. 2019; 9: 3364.
 Gelalis ID, Ristanis S, Nikolopoulos A, Politis A, Rigas C, Xe-nakis T. Loading rate patterns in scoliotic children during gait: the impact of the schoolbag carriage and the importance of its position. European Spine Journal. 2012; 21: 1936–1941.
 D’Addio G, Donisi L, Mercogliano L, Cesarelli G, Bifulco P, Cesarelli M. Potential Biomechanical Overload on Skele-tal Muscle Structures in Students during Walk with Backpack. Mediterranean Conference on Medical and Biological Engineer-ing and Computing. 2019; 262–266.
 Zadpoor AA, Nikooyan AA. The relationship between lower-extremity stress fractures and the ground reaction force: a sys-tematic review. Clinical Biomechanics. 2011; 26: 23–28.
 Birrell SA, Haslam RA. The effect of load distribution within military load carriage systems on the kinetics of human gait. Ap-plied Ergonomics. 2010; 41: 585–590.
 Hong Y, Li JX. Influence of load and carrying methods on gait phase and ground reactions in children’s stair walking. Gait & Posture. 2005; 22: 63–68.
 Voloshin AS. Impact propagation and its effects on the human body. Biomechanics in Sport. 2000; 577.
 Perrone M, Orr R, Hing W, Milne N, Pope R. The Impact of Backpack Loads on School Children: a Critical Narrative Re-view. International Journal of Environmental Research and Pub-lic Health. 2018; 15: 2529.
 Keller T, Weisberger A, Ray J, Hasan S, Shiavi R, Spengler D. Relationship between vertical ground reaction force and speed during walking, slow jogging, and running. Clinical Biomechan-ics. 1996; 11: 253–259.
 Lindstrom-Hazel D. The backpack problem is evident but the solution is less obvious. Work. 2009; 32: 329–338.
 Al-Hazzaa HM. Schoolbackpack - How much load do Saudi school boys carry on their shoulders? Saudi Medical Journal. 2006; 27: 1567–1571.
 Xu X, Hsiang SM, Mirka GA. The effects of a suspended-load backpack on gait. Gait & Posture. 2009; 29: 151–153.
 Brattberg G. Do pain problems in young school children persist into early adulthood? a 13-year follow-up. European Journal of Pain. 2004; 8: 187–199.
 Mallakzadeh M, Javidi M, Azimi S, Monshizadeh H. Analyz-ing the potential benefits of using a backpack with non-flexible straps. Work. 2016; 54: 11–20.
 Ramadan MZ, Al-Shayea AM. A modified backpack design for male school children. International Journal of Industrial Er-gonomics. 2013; 43: 462–471.
 Ren L, Jones RK, Howard D. Dynamic analysis of load carriage biomechanics during level walking. Journal of Biomechanics. 2005; 38: 853–863.
 Barbosa JP, Marques MC, Neiva HP, Esteves D, Alonso-Martínez AM, Izquierdo M, et al. Effects of backpacks on ground reaction forces in children of different ages when walk-ing, running, and jumping. International Journal of Environmen-tal Research and Public Health. 2019; 16: 5154.
 Cohen J. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Erlbaum Associates. 1988.
 Foissac M, Millet GY, Geyssant A, Freychat P, Belli A. Char-acterization of the mechanical properties of backpacks and their influence on the energetics of walking. Journal of Biomechanics. 2009; 42: 125–130.
 Silder A, Besier T, Delp SL. Running with a load increases leg stiffness. Journal of Biomechanics. 2015; 48: 1003–1008.
 McKay H, Tsang G, Heinonen A, MacKelvie K, Sanderson D, Khan KM. Ground reaction forces associated with an effective elementary school based jumping intervention. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2005; 39: 10–14.
Vol., Issue , Invalid dateTable of contents
Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch) Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,200 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.
Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition aims to evaluate a journal’s value from multiple perspectives including the journal impact factor, descriptive data about a journal’s open access content as well as contributing authors, and provide readers a transparent and publisher-neutral data & statistics information about the journal.
Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) DOAJ is a unique and extensive index of diverse open access journals from around the world, driven by a growing community, committed to ensuring quality content is freely available online for everyone.
SCImago The SCImago Journal & Country Rank is a publicly available portal that includes the journals and country scientific indicators developed from the information contained in the Scopus® database (Elsevier B.V.)
Publication Forum - JUFO (Federation of Finnish Learned Societies) Publication Forum is a classification of publication channels created by the Finnish scientific community to support the quality assessment of academic research.
Scopus CiteScore 0.7 (2021) Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.
Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers Search for publication channels (journals, series and publishers) in the Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers to see if they are considered as scientific. (https://kanalregister.hkdir.no/publiseringskanaler/Forside).