Relationship between cardiovascular disease risk factors, health behavior and physical fitness according to visceral fat in older men
1Department of Sports Science Convergence, Dongguk University, 04620 Seoul, Republic of Korea
2Department of Physical Education, Gangneung-Wonju National University, 25457 Gangneung, Republic of Korea
3College of Sports Science, Chung-Ang University, 06974 Seoul, Republic of Korea
DOI: 10.31083/j.jomh1806128 Vol.18,Issue 6,June 2022 pp.1-9
Published: 30 June 2022
Background: Obesity in older adults is increasing. The two types of fat involved in obesity are subcutaneous and visceral fat. We investigated the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors, health-related behaviors, and physical fitness based on the level of visceral fat in older men. Methods: Data from 1219 men aged
Visceral fat; Cardiovascular disease; Physical activity; Fitness; Odds ratio
Duk Han Ko,Yong Hwan Kim,Joung Kyue Han. Relationship between cardiovascular disease risk factors, health behavior and physical fitness according to visceral fat in older men. Journal of Men's Health. 2022. 18(6);1-9.
 Warburton DER, Nicol CW, Bredin SSD. Health benefits of physical activity: the evidence. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 2006; 174: 801–809.
 Nakou ES, Simantirakis EN, Kallergis EM, Skalidis EI, Vardas PE. Long-standing sinus arrest due to the occlusion of sinus node artery during percutaneous coronary intervention: Clinical im-plications and management. International Journal of Cardiology. 2015; 203: 432–433.
 Al-Sofiani ME, Ganji SS, Kalyani RR. Body composition changes in diabetes and aging. Journal of Diabetes and its Com-plications. 2019; 33: 451–459.
 Curcio F, Ferro G, Basile C, Liguori I, Parrella P, Pirozzi F, et al. Biomarkers in sarcopenia: a multifactorial approach. Exper-imental Gerontology. 2016; 85: 1–8.
 Zaidi M, Lizneva D, Kim S, Sun L, Iqbal J, New MI, et al. FSH, Bone Mass, Body Fat, and Biological Aging. Endocrinology. 2018; 159: 3503–3514.
 North BJ, Sinclair DA. The intersection between aging and car-diovascular disease. Circulation Research. 2012; 110: 1097–1108.
 Cho YJ, Lee AR, Hwang MJ, Chung WS, Song MY. Relation of Physical Activity and Visceral Adipose Tissue Accumulation in Korean Obese and Overweight Women. Journal of Korean Medicine for Obesity Research. 2008; 8: 49–62.
 Elffers TW, de Mutsert R, Lamb HJ, de Roos A, Willems van Dijk K, Rosendaal FR, et al. Body fat distribution, in particular visceral fat, is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in obese women. PLoS one. 2017; 12: e0185403.
 Koster A, Murphy RA, Eiriksdottir G, Aspelund T, Sigurdsson S, Lang TF, et al. Fat distribution and mortality: the AGES-Reykjavik study. Obesity. 2015; 23: 893–897.
 Kim H, Ahn D, Kim SH, Lee DS, Yoon SH, Zo J, et al. Associa-tion between body fat parameters and arterial stiffness. Scientific Reports. 2021; 11: 20536.
 Merlotti C, Ceriani V, Morabito A, Pontiroli AE. Subcutaneous fat loss is greater than visceral fat loss with diet and exercise, weight-loss promoting drugs and bariatric surgery: a critical re-view and meta-analysis. International Journal of Obesity. 2017; 41: 672–682.
 Ponti F, Santoro A, Mercatelli D, Gasperini C, Conte M, Mar-tucci M, et al. Aging and imaging assessment of body compo-sition: from fat to facts. Frontiers in Endocrinology. 2020; 10: 861–871.
 Zhang H, Tong TK, Kong Z, Shi Q, Liu Y, Nie J. Exercise train-ing‐induced visceral fat loss in obese women: the role of train-ing intensity and modality. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 2021; 31: 30–43.
 Kobayashi R, Sato K, Takahashi T, Asaki K, Iwanuma S, Ohashi N, et al. Arterial stiffness during hyperglycemia in older adults with high physical activity vs low physical activity. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition. 2019; 65: 146–152.
 Hawkins M, Gabriel KP, Cooper J, Storti KL, Sutton-Tyrrell K, Kriska A. The impact of change in physical activity on change in arterial stiffness in overweight or obese sedentary young adults. Vascular Medicine. 2014; 19: 257–263.
 Lee H, Gwak J, Jun H, Kim E. Relationship between Arterial Stiffness and Physical Activity Level Assessed by International Physical Activity Questionnaireshort form (IPAQSF) in the El-derly. Korean Journal of Community Nutrition. 2020; 25: 236.
 Myers J, Kokkinos P, Nyelin E. Physical activity, cardiorespi-ratory fitness, and the metabolic syndrome. Nutrients. 2019; 11: 1652.
 Kim JA, Choi CJ, Yum KS. Cut-off Values of Visceral Fat Area and Waist Circumference: Diagnostic Criteria for Abdominal Obesity in a Korean Population. Journal of Korean Medical Sci-ence. 2006; 21: 1048.
 Chun MY. Validity and reliability of korean version of interna-tional physical activity questionnaire short form in the elderly. Korean Journal of Family Medicine. 2012; 33: 144–151.
 American College of Sports Medicine. ACSM fitness book. 3rd edn. Human Kinetics: Champaign, IL. 2003.
 Preis SR, Massaro JM, Robins SJ, Hoffmann U, Vasan RS, Irl-beck T, et al. Abdominal Subcutaneous and Visceral Adipose Tissue and Insulin Resistance in the Framingham Heart Study. Obesity. 2010; 18: 2191–2198.
 Elffers TDW, De Mutsert R, Lamb HJ, De Roos A, Van Dijk JKW, Rosendaal FR, et al. Body fat distribution, in particular visceral fat, is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in women with obesity. Atherosclerosis. 2017; 263: e175.
 Matsushita Y, Nakagawa T, Yamamoto S, Kato T, Ouchi T, Kikuchi N, et al. Adiponectin and visceral fat associate with car-diovascular risk factors. Obesity. 2014; 22: 287–291.
 Okamoto T, Morimoto S, Ikenoue T, Furumatsu Y, Ichihara A. Visceral fat level is an independent risk factor for cardiovas-cular mortality in hemodialysis patients. American Journal of Nephrology. 2014; 39: 122–129.
 Meriño-Ibarra E, Artieda M, Cenarro A, Goicoechea J, Calvo L, Guallar A, et al. Ultrasonography for the evaluation of visceral fat and the metabolic syndrome. Metabolism. 2005; 54: 1230–1235.
 Arner P. Differences in lipolysis between human subcutaneous and omental adipose tissues. Annals of Medicine. 1995; 27: 435–438.
 Umano GR, Shabanova V, Pierpont B, Mata M, Nouws J, Tricò D, et al. A low visceral fat proportion, independent of total body fat mass, protects obese adolescent girls against fatty liver and glucose dysregulation: a longitudinal study. International Jour-nal of Obesity. 2019; 43: 673–682.
 Taniguchi A, Nakai Y, Sakai M, Yoshii S, Hamanaka D, Hatae Y, et al. Relationship of regional adiposity to insulin resistance and serum triglyceride levels in nonobese Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Metabolism. 2002; 51: 544–548.
 Dusserre E, Moulin P, Vidal H. Differences in mRNA expres-sion of the proteins secreted by the adipocytes in human subcu-taneous and visceral adipose tissues. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 2000; 1500: 88–96.
 Chiba Y, Saitoh S, Takagi S, Ohnishi H, Katoh N, Ohata J, et al. Relationship between visceral fat and cardiovascular disease risk factors: the Tanno and Sobetsu study. Hypertension Research. 2007; 30: 229–236.
 Sato F, Maeda N, Yamada T, Namazui H, Fukuda S, Natsukawa T, et al. Association of Epicardial, Visceral, and Subcutaneous Fat with Cardiometabolic Diseases. Circulation Journal. 2018; 82: 502–508.
 Geovanini GR, Libby P. Atherosclerosis and inflammation: overview and updates. Clinical Science. 2018; 132: 1243–1252.
 Cainzos-Achirica M, Rampal S, Chang Y, Ryu S, Zhang Y, Zhao D, et al. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity is associated
with coronary calcium in young and middle-aged asymptomatic adults: the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study. Atherosclerosis. 2015; 241: 350–356.
 Kim S, Kim J, Lee D, Lee H, Lee J, Jeon JY. Combined impact of cardiorespiratory fitness and visceral adiposity on metabolic syndrome in overweight and obese adults in Korea. PLoS One. 2014; 9: e85742.
 Molenaar EA, Massaro JM, Jacques PF, Pou KM, Ellison RC, Hoffmann U, et al. Association of Lifestyle Factors with Ab-dominal Subcutaneous and Visceral Adiposity: the Framingham Heart Study. Diabetes Care. 2009; 32: 505–510.
 Zając-Gawlak I, Kłapcińska B, Kroemeke A, Pośpiech D, Pel-clová J, Přidalová M. Associations of visceral fat area and phys-ical activity levels with the risk of metabolic syndrome in post-menopausal women. Biogerontology. 2017; 18: 357–366.
 Suresh N, Reddy RL. Effect of lifestyle on body fat percentage and visceral fat in Indian women with above normal body mass index. International Journal of Current Research and Review. 2017; 9: 32–36.
 Scott D, Hayes A, Sanders KM, Aitken D, Ebeling PR, Jones G. Operational definitions of sarcopenia and their associations with 5- year changes in falls risk in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults. Osteoporosis International. 2014; 25: 187–193.
 Miyatake N, Takanami S, Kawasaki Y, Fujii M. Relationship be-tween visceral fat accumulation and physical fitness in Japanese women. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 2004; 64: 173–179.
 Blaskewicz Boron J, Haavisto W, Willis S, Robinson P, Schaie K. Longitudinal Change in Cognitive Flexibility: Impact of Age, Hypertension, and APOE4. Innovation in Aging. 2018; 2: 249–249.
 Wilke J, Macchi V, De Caro R, Stecco C. Fascia thickness, ag-ing and flexibility: is there an association? Journal of Anatomy. 2019; 234: 43–49.
 de la Motte SJ, Lisman P, Gribbin TC, Murphy K, Deuster PA. Systematic Review of the Association between Physical Fitness and Musculoskeletal Injury Risk: Part 3—Flexibility, Power, Speed, Balance, and Agility. Journal of Strength and Condition-ing Research. 2019; 33: 1723–1735.
Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch) Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,200 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.
Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition aims to evaluate a journal’s value from multiple perspectives including the journal impact factor, descriptive data about a journal’s open access content as well as contributing authors, and provide readers a transparent and publisher-neutral data & statistics information about the journal.
Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) DOAJ is a unique and extensive index of diverse open access journals from around the world, driven by a growing community, committed to ensuring quality content is freely available online for everyone.
SCImago The SCImago Journal & Country Rank is a publicly available portal that includes the journals and country scientific indicators developed from the information contained in the Scopus® database (Elsevier B.V.)
Publication Forum - JUFO (Federation of Finnish Learned Societies) Publication Forum is a classification of publication channels created by the Finnish scientific community to support the quality assessment of academic research.
Scopus: CiteScore 0.7 (2022) Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.
Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers Search for publication channels (journals, series and publishers) in the Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers to see if they are considered as scientific. (https://kanalregister.hkdir.no/publiseringskanaler/Forside).