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Original Research

Open Access Special Issue

Relationship between cardiovascular disease risk factors, health behavior and physical fitness according to visceral fat in older men

  • Duk Han Ko1
  • Yong Hwan Kim2,*,
  • Joung Kyue Han3,*,

1Department of Sports Science Convergence, Dongguk University, 04620 Seoul, Republic of Korea

2Department of Physical Education, Gangneung-Wonju National University, 25457 Gangneung, Republic of Korea

3College of Sports Science, Chung-Ang University, 06974 Seoul, Republic of Korea

DOI: 10.31083/j.jomh1806128 Vol.18,Issue 6,June 2022 pp.1-9

Published: 30 June 2022

(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports and physical activities for men’s health)

*Corresponding Author(s): Yong Hwan Kim E-mail:
*Corresponding Author(s): Joung Kyue Han E-mail:


Background: Obesity in older adults is increasing. The two types of fat involved in obesity are subcutaneous and visceral fat. We investigated the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors, health-related behaviors, and physical fitness based on the level of visceral fat in older men. Methods: Data from 1219 men aged 65 years who underwent health checkups at Korean hospitals from 2012 to 2020 were analyzed. Computed tomography (CT) data was used to divide participants into low visceral fat area (LVFA) and high visceral fat area (HVFA) groups. Cardiovascular risk factors such as blood pressure, triglyceride level, high-density cholesterol, and fasting blood glucose were measured. Bio-impedance analysis was used for body composition, and arteriosclerosis was tested by brachial artery pulse wave velocity (baPWV). Physical activity, exercise type, smoking, and alcohol consumption were investigated and cardiorespiratory fitness, grip strength, leg strength, flexibility, balance, and agility were determined. The odds ratio (OR) of HVFA was calculated by logistic regression analysis. Results: HVFA and LVFA groups exhibited significant differences in waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, triglyceride, glucose, baPWV, weekly physical activity, aerobic exercise, and alcohol consumption. Compared to the high fitness group, the low fitness group had an increased OR for HVFA; cardiorespiratory fitness (OR 3.563), grip strength (OR 2.365), leg strength (OR 4.145), and flexibility (OR 2.523). The group with low aerobic and strength training frequency increased OR by 2.5 and 3.2 times compared to the low frequency group, respectively. The OR of HVFA increased 2.8 times in the group which consumed alcohol more than 4 days a week compared to the group with consumption less than monthly. Conclusions: Men with HVFA exhibited lower levels of physical activity, more alcohol consumption, and lower levels of fitness than those with LVFA. Moreover, low levels of fitness, physical activity, and high alcohol consumption increased the risk of HVFA.


Visceral fat; Cardiovascular disease; Physical activity; Fitness; Odds ratio

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Duk Han Ko,Yong Hwan Kim,Joung Kyue Han. Relationship between cardiovascular disease risk factors, health behavior and physical fitness according to visceral fat in older men. Journal of Men's Health. 2022. 18(6);1-9.


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