Gender Differences in Committing Suicide in Thailand
1Department of Healthcare Administration Specialty in Psychology, College of Medical and Health Science, Asia University, 41354 Taichung, Taiwan；Department of Psychology, College of Medical and Health Science, Asia University, 41354 Taichung, Taiwan；Department of Psychology, University of the Free State, 9301 Bloemfontein, South Africa
DOI: 10.31083/j.jomh1806131 Vol.18,Issue 6,June 2022 pp.1-12
Published: 30 June 2022
Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate gender differences in suicide in Thailand. Methods: The observational investigation was carried out by scrutinizing existing historical data over a 25-year period, from 1994 to 2020. Data were obtained from the Thai Department of Mental Health and WHO cause of death data. We use the codes ICD-10 (X60-X84) to identify mortality due to different methods of suicide. Results: During a 25-year study period, the range of suicide rates per 100,000 people varied between 3.97–8.59, and the mean (standard deviation, SD) was 6.66 (0.99). Male rates were higher than female rates (t = 23.43; p
gender differences; commit suicide; suicide means; suicide rates; self-harm
Passakorn Suanrueang,Mein-Woei Suen,Karl Peltzer. Gender Differences in Committing Suicide in Thailand. Journal of Men's Health. 2022. 18(6);1-12.
 World Health Organization. Mental health. 2021. Available at: https://www.who.int/data/gho/data/themes/mental-health (Ac-cessed: 22 December 2021).
 Levi-Belz Y, Gvion Y, Apter A. Editorial: The Psychology of Suicide: From Research Understandings to Intervention and Treatment. Frontiers in Psychiatry. 2019; 10: 214.
 Turecki G, Brent DA. Suicide and suicidal behaviour. The Lancet. 2016; 387: 1227–1239.
 Barrigon ML, Cegla-Schvartzman F. Sex, Gender, and Suici-dal Behavior. In Baca-Garcia E (ed.) Behavioral Neurobiology of Suicide and Self Harm (pp. 89–115). Springer International Publishing: Cham. 2020.
 World Health Organization. Suicide Worldwide in 2019: Global Health estimates. World Health Organization Press: Geneva, Switzerland. 2021.
 Emiral E, Emiral GO, Cevik ZA, Canturk N, Canturk G. Investi-gation of suicide deaths in Turkey between 2015 and 2019. Jour-nal of Men’s Health. (in press)
 Mejías-Martín Y, Luna Del Castillo JD, Rodríguez-Mejías C, Martí-García C, Valencia-Quintero JP, García-Caro MP. Factors Associated with Suicide Attempts and Suicides in the General Population of Andalusia (Spain). International Journal of Envi-ronmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16: 4496.
 Hee Ahn M, Park S, Ha K, Choi SH, Hong JP. Gender ratio comparisons of the suicide rates and methods in Korea, Japan, Australia, and the United States. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2012; 142: 161–165.
 Vijayakumar L, Chandra PS, Kumar MS, Pathare S, Banerjee D, Goswami T, et al. The national suicide prevention strategy in India: context and considerations for urgent action. The Lancet Psychiatry. 2022; 9: 160–168.
 Li J. Suicide Among Chinese Women. In Li J (ed) A Study on Suicide: Diagnosis and Solutions (pp. 57–90). Springer: Singa-pore. 2019.
 He J, Ouyang F, Qiu D, Li L, Li Y, Xiao S. Time Trends and Predictions of Suicide Mortality for People Aged 70 Years and Over From 1990 to 2030 Based on the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Frontiers in Psychiatry. 2021; 12: 721343.
 Karbeyaz K, Çelikel A, Emiral E, Emiral GÖ. Elderly suicide in Eskisehir, Turkey. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine. 2017; 52: 12–15.
 Conejero I, Olié E, Courtet P, Calati R. Suicide in older adults: current perspectives. Clinical Interventions in Aging. 2018; 13: 691–699.
 Demir M. Who commits suicide most? Suicide by gender and age. Forensic Research and Criminology International Journal. 2018; 6: 505–510.
 National Institute of Mental Health. Suicide. National Insti-tute of Mental Health (NIMH). 2021. Available at: https://ww w.nimh.nih.gov/health/statistics/suicide (Accessed: 22 January 2022).
 Cheong K, Choi M, Cho B, Yoon T, Kim C, Kim Y, et al. Sui-cide rate differences by sex, age, and urbanicity, and related re-gional factors in Korea. Journal of Preventive Medicine and Pub-lic Health. 2012; 45: 70–77.
 Shelef L. The gender paradox: do men differ from women in suicidal behavior? Journal of Men’s Health. 2021; 17: 22–29.
 Lotrakul M. Suicide in Thailand during the period 1998–2003. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. 2006; 60: 90–95.
 Snowdon J. Rates and Age Patterns of Suicide and Undeter-mined Death in Thailand. Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science. 2021; 4: 1046.
 Tandon R, Nathani MK. Increasing Suicide Rates across Asia-A Public Health Crisis. Asian Journal of Psychiatry. 2018; 36: A2–A4.
 Chanagul C. Determinants of Suicide Rates in Thailand. Journal of Community Development Research (Humanities and Social Sciences). 2019; 12: 15–24.
 Chansarn S. Economic Development, Economic Problems, and Suicide in Thailand: Empirical Evidence Based on Provincial Data. Asia-Pacific Social Science Review. 2017; 17: 88–104.
 Scourfield J, Evans R. Why might Men be more at Risk of Sui-cide after a Relationship Breakdown? Sociological Insights. American Journal of Men’s Health. 2015; 9: 380–384.
 Cano-Montalbán I, Quevedo-Blasco R. Sociodemographic Vari-ables Most Associated with Suicidal Behaviour and Suicide Methods in Europe and America. A Systematic Review. Euro-pean Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context. 2018; 10: 15–25.
 Rungreangkulkij SR, Kotnara I, Thamnoi R, Yodklang O, Anusak B. Experience of Suicide Attempt: Gender differences. Journal of the Psychiatric Association of Thailand. 2013; 58: 245–256.
 Booniam S, Wongpakaran T, Lerttrakarnnon P, Jiraniramai S, Kuntawong P, Wongpakaran N. Predictors of Passive and Active Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempt Among Older People: A Study in Tertiary Care Settings in Thailand. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment. 2020; 16: 3135–3144.
 Hirokawa S, Kawakami N, Matsumoto T, Inagaki A, Eguchi N, Tsuchiya M, et al. Mental disorders and suicide in Japan: a nation-wide psychological autopsy case–control study. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2012; 140: 168–175.
 Call JB, Shafer K. Gendered Manifestations of Depression and Help Seeking among Men. American Journal of Men’s Health. 2018; 12: 41–51.
 Abdel Moneim WM, Yassa HA, George SM. Suicide rate: Trends and implications in Upper Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Forensic Sciences. 2011; 1: 48–52.
 Snowdon J, Mehdi Saberi S, Moazen-Zadeh E. A comparison between the age patterns and rates of suicide in the Islamic Re-public of Iran and Australia. Eastern Mediterranean Health Jour-nal. 2020; 26: 748–754.
 Burns RA. Sex and age trends in Australia’s suicide rate over the last decade: something is still seriously wrong with men in middle and late life. Psychiatry Research. 2016; 245: 224–229.
 Varin M, Orpana HM, Palladino E, Pollock NJ, Baker MM. Trends in Suicide Mortality in Canada by Sex and Age Group, 1981 to 2017: a Population-Based Time Series Analysis: Ten-dances de la mortalité par suicide au Canada selon le sexe et le groupe d’âge, 1981–2017: Une analyse de séries chronologiques dans la population. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 2021; 66: 170–178.
 Yoon JH, Jung SJ, Choi J, Kang MY. Suicide Trends over Time by Occupation in Korea and Their Relationship to Economic Downturns. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16: 2007.
 Chang YH, Gunnell D, Hsu CY, Chang SS, Cheng AT. Gender difference in suicide in Taiwan over a century: a time trend anal-ysis in 1905–1940 and 1959–2012. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 2020; 74: 898–906.
 Tanaka T, Okamoto S. Increase in suicide following an initial de-cline during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan. Nature Human Behaviour. 2021; 5: 229–238.
 Somjai D. Impacts of Socio-economic Factors on Provicial Sui-cide Trends in Thailand. Journal of Health Science. 2012; 21: 251–262.
 Supasaek Virojanapa, Taneepanichskul N. Suicidal Idea among The Elderly. Journal of Public Health and Development. 2020; 18: 102–109.
 Yilmaz N, Karaca SN. Dissatisfaction with life and absence of leisure time activity: clues to overt depression and occult suicide risk in elderly individuals without significant disabling disease. Psychogeriatrics. 2020; 20: 337–344.
 Dhungel B, Sugai MK, Gilmour S. Trends in Suicide Mortality by Method from 1979 to 2016 in Japan. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16: 1794.
 Lim M, Lee SU, Park J. Difference in suicide methods used be-tween suicide attempters and suicide completers. International Journal of Mental Health Systems. 2014; 8: 54.
 Lin J, Chang S, Lu T. The leading methods of suicide in Taiwan, 2002–2008. BMC Public Health. 2010; 10: 480.
 Wu KC, Chen YY, Yip PS. Suicide Methods in Asia: Impli-cations in Suicide Prevention. International Journal of Environ-mental Research and Public Health. 2012; 9: 1135–1158.
 Rane A, Nadkarni A. Suicide in India: a systematic review. Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry. 2014; 26: 69–80.
 Nurdiyanto FA, Jaroah S. The Characteristics of Suicide in Gunungkidul Indonesia. Disease Prevention and Public Health Journal. 2020; 14: 69–75.
 Yoshioka E, Hanley SJ, Kawanishi Y, Saijo Y. Time trends in method-specific suicide rates in Japan, 1990–2011. Epidemiol-ogy and Psychiatric Sciences. 2014; 25: 58–68.
 World Health Organization. Suicide. 2021. Available at: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/suicide (Accessed: 7 January 2022).
 Denning DG, Conwell Y, King D, Cox C. Method choice, intent, and gender in completed suicide. Suicide & Life-Threatening Behavior. 2000; 30: 282–288.
 Mergl R, Koburger N, Heinrichs K, Székely A, Tóth MD, Coyne J, et al. What are Reasons for the Large Gender Differences in the Lethality of Suicidal Acts? An Epidemiological Analysis in Four European Countries. PLoS ONE. 2015; 10: e0129062.
 Callanan VJ, Davis MS. Gender differences in suicide methods. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. 2012; 47: 857–869.
 Tsirigotis K, Gruszczynski W, Tsirigotis M. Gender differenti-ation in methods of suicide attempts. Medical Science Monitor. 2011; 17: PH65–PH70.
 Kanchan T, Menon A, Menezes RG. Methods of choice in com-pleted suicides: gender differences and review of literature. Journal of Forensic Sciences. 2009; 54: 938–942.
 Xu X, Zhang J, Zhou Q, Sun L. Gender Characteristics in Meth-ods of Chinese Rural Young Suicides. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. 2021; 19: 438–446.
 Thailand’s Department of Mental Health. National Suicide Pre-vention Strategy 2021–2022. Department of Mental Health, Ministry of Public Health: Nonthaburi, Thailand. 2020.
Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch) Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,200 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.
Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition aims to evaluate a journal’s value from multiple perspectives including the journal impact factor, descriptive data about a journal’s open access content as well as contributing authors, and provide readers a transparent and publisher-neutral data & statistics information about the journal.
Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) DOAJ is a unique and extensive index of diverse open access journals from around the world, driven by a growing community, committed to ensuring quality content is freely available online for everyone.
SCImago The SCImago Journal & Country Rank is a publicly available portal that includes the journals and country scientific indicators developed from the information contained in the Scopus® database (Elsevier B.V.)
Publication Forum - JUFO (Federation of Finnish Learned Societies) Publication Forum is a classification of publication channels created by the Finnish scientific community to support the quality assessment of academic research.
Scopus: CiteScore 0.7 (2022) Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.
Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers Search for publication channels (journals, series and publishers) in the Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers to see if they are considered as scientific. (https://kanalregister.hkdir.no/publiseringskanaler/Forside).