Article Data

  • Views 234
  • Dowloads 125

Original Research

Open Access Special Issue

Gym Versus Home-Based Training During Transition Period in Adolescent Soccer Players: Effects on Physical Performance

  • Mima Stanković1,*,†,
  • Dušan Đorđević1,†,
  • Slobodan Andrašić2,†,
  • Zvonimir Tomac3
  • Tomislav Vlahović4
  • Miljenko Franić5,6,7,8,
  • Tihomir Vidranski9
  • Ivan Krakan9
  • Goran Sporiš9
  • Nebojša Trajković1

1Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Niš, 18000 Niš, Serbia

2Faculty of Economics, University of Novi Sad, 24000 Subotica, Serbia

3Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Osijek, 31000 Osijek, Croatia

4Department of Traumatology, State Hospital “Sestre milosrdnice”, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia

5Department of Traumatology and Orthopedics, Clinical Hospital Dubrava, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia

6University of Applied Sciences, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia

7Josip Juraj Strossmayer School of Medicine, University of Osijek, 31000 Osijek, Croatia

8School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia

9Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Zagreb, 10110 Zagreb, Croatia

DOI: 10.31083/j.jomh1806134 Vol.18,Issue 6,June 2022 pp.1-8

Submitted: 04 January 2022 Accepted: 23 February 2022

Published: 30 June 2022

(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and sports in men: from health to sports performance)

*Corresponding Author(s): Mima Stanković E-mail:

† These authors contributed equally.


Background: After the in-season period where trainings and games are consistant, players have the rest period, during which the volume and stress are reduced, which allows physical and mental recovery. Instead of having too much free time in transition period, the players should work on their fitness, in order to reduce the side effects of inactivity in transition period. The modern soccer demands the highest quality professional and scientific approach, especially with adolescents. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine gym versus home-based training during transition period in adolescent soccer players. Methods: The sample of participants was 34 adolescent male soccer players (16–18 years old). They were randomly allocated to experimental (GYM; N = 16) and control group (HOME; N = 18). The transition period itself lasted 3 weeks and it was separated by a weekly micro cycle, where players have done different activities each week. The procedures have included anthropometry (body height, mass and Body Mass Index), flexibility (sit and reach), vertical jump tests (countermovement jump, countermovement jump with arm swing and squat jump), running speed (sprint at 5 m, 10 m and 20 m) and agility (Illinois Agility Test). Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used for distribution normality, while a repeated measurement (2 × Analysis of variance) was used to calculate the interactions, major effects for time (pretest vs. posttest) and group (GYM vs. HOME), with additional Cohen’s effect size. Results: The study results showed that physical performance variables, in both groups, were partially maintained, while in while running speed and agility showed small deterioration. Conclusions: It is crutial to carefully design the trainings and to work on the shortcomings of soccer players in transition period, because that is the only period when they can make up due to lack of time.


off-season; young players; speed; agility; explosive power; BMI

Cite and Share

Mima Stanković,Dušan Đorđević,Slobodan Andrašić,Zvonimir Tomac,Tomislav Vlahović,Miljenko Franić,Tihomir Vidranski,Ivan Krakan,Goran Sporiš,Nebojša Trajković. Gym Versus Home-Based Training During Transition Period in Adolescent Soccer Players: Effects on Physical Performance. Journal of Men's Health. 2022. 18(6);1-8.


[1] Andrašić S, Gušić M, Stanković M, Mačak D, Bradić A, Sporiš G, et al. Speed, Change of Direction Speed and Reactive Agility in Adolescent Soccer Players: Age Related Differences. Inter-national Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18: 5883.

[2] Trecroci A, Longo S, Perri E, Iaia FM, Alberti G. Field-based physical performance of elite and sub-elite middle-adolescent soccer players. Research in Sports Medicine. 2019; 27: 60–71.

[3] Borges PH, Cumming S, Ronque ER V, Cardoso F, Avelar A, Rechenchosky L, et al. Relationship between tactical perfor-mance, somatic maturity and functional capabilities in young soccer players. Journal of Human Kinetics. 2018; 64: 160–169.

[4] Williams AM, Ford PR, Drust B. Talent identification and de-velopment in soccer since the millennium. Journal of Sports Sci-ences. 2020; 38: 1199–1210.

[5] Teplan J, Malý T, Zahálka F, Hráský P, Kaplan A, Hanus M, et al. The level of aerobic capacity in elite youth soccer players and its comparison in two age categories. Journal of Physical Education and Sport. 2012; 12: 129.

[6] Dvorak J, George J, Junge A, Hodler J. Age determination by magnetic resonance imaging of the wrist in adolescent male foot-ball players. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2007; 41: 45–52.

[7] Moore EWG, Hickey MS, Reiser RF. Comparison of two twelve week off-season combined training programs on entry level col-legiate soccer players’ performance. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2005; 19: 791–798.

[8] Bekris E, Pidoulas G, Pidoulas P, Gissis I, Katis A, Komsis S. Examination of Physical Fitness Parameters between Profes-sional and Amateur Greek Soccer Players during the Transition Period. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2021; 35: 776–781.

[9] Requena B, García I, Suárez-Arrones L, Sáez de Villarreal E, Naranjo Orellana J, Santalla A. Off-Season Effects on Func-tional Performance, Body Composition, and Blood Parameters in Top-Level Professional Soccer Players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2017; 31: 939–946.

[10] Jiménez-Reyes P, Garcia-Ramos A, Párraga-Montilla JA, Morcillo-Losa JA, Cuadrado-Peñafiel V, Castaño-Zambudio A, et al. Seasonal Changes in the Sprint Acceleration Force-Velocity Profile of Elite Male Soccer Players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2022; 36: 70–74.

[11] Silva JR, Brito J, Akenhead R, Nassis GP. The Transition Period in Soccer: a Window of Opportunity. Sports Medicine. 2016; 46: 305–313.

[12] Rubini EC, Costa ALL, Gomes PSC. The effects of stretching on strength performance. Sports Medicine. 2007; 37: 213–224.

[13] Caldwell BP, Peters DM. Seasonal variation in physiological fit-ness of a semiprofessional soccer team. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2009; 23: 1370–1377.

[14] Suarez-Arrones L, Lara-Lopez P, Maldonado R, Torreno N, De Hoyo M, Nakamura FY, et al. The effects of detraining and re-training periods on fat-mass and fat-free mass in elite male soc-cer players. PeerJ. 2019; 7: e7466.

[15] Folland JP, Williams AG. Morphological and neurological con-tributions to increased strength. Sports Medicine. 2007; 37: 145–168.

[16] Joo CH. The effects of short term detraining and retraining on physical fitness in elite soccer players. PLoS ONE. 2018; 13: e0196212.

[17] Mujika I, Santisteban J, Castagna C. In-season effect of short-term sprint and power training programs on elite junior soccer players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2009; 23: 2581–2587.

[18] Koundourakis NE, Androulakis NE, Malliaraki N, Tsatsanis C, Venihaki M, Margioris AN. Discrepancy between exercise per-formance, body composition, and sex steroid response after a six-week detraining period in professional soccer players. PLoS ONE. 2014; 9: e87803.

[19] Nakamura D, Suzuki T, Yasumatsu M, Akimoto T. Moderate running and plyometric training during off-season did not show a significant difference on soccer-related high-intensity perfor-mances compared with no-training controls. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2012; 26: 3392–3397.

[20] Śliwowski R, Jadczak Ł, Hejna R, Wieczorek A. The Effects of Individualized Resistance Strength Programs on Knee Muscular Imbalances in Junior Elite Soccer Players. PLoS ONE. 2015; 10: e0144021.

[21] Vassilis S, Yiannis M, Athanasios M, Dimitrios M, Ioannis G, Thomas M. Effect of a 4-week detraining period followed by a 4-week strength program on isokinetic strength in elite youth soccer players. Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation. 2019; 15: 67–73.

[22] Chatzinikolaou A, Michaloglou K, Avloniti A, Leontsini D, Deli CK, Vlachopoulos D, et al. The Trainability of Adolescent Soc-cer Players to Brief Periodized Complex Training. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 2018; 13: 645–655.

[23] Wells KF, Dillon EK. The Sit and Reach—A Test of Back and Leg Flexibility. Research Quarterly. American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation. 1952; 23: 115–118.

[24] Henry FM. “Best” versus “Average” Individual Scores. Re-search Quarterly. American Association for Health, Physical Ed-ucation and Recreation. 1967; 38: 317–320.

[25] Bosco C, Luhtanen P, Komi PV. A simple method for measure-ment of mechanical power in jumping. European Journal of Ap-plied Physiology and Occupational Physiology. 1983; 50: 273–282.

[26] Glatthorn JF, Gouge S, Nussbaumer S, Stauffacher S, Impel-lizzeri FM, Maffiuletti NA. Validity and reliability of Optojump photoelectric cells for estimating vertical jump height. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2011; 25: 556–560.

[27] Daneshjoo A, Mokhtar AH, Rahnama N, Yusof A. Effects of the 11+ and Harmoknee Warm-up Programs on Physical Per-formance Measures in Professional Soccer Players. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine. 2013; 12: 489–496.

[28] Hopkins WG, Marshall SW, Batterham AM, Hanin J. Progres-sive statistics for studies in sports medicine and exercise science. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2009; 41: 3–13.

[29] Lakens D. Calculating and reporting effect sizes to facilitate cu-mulative science: a practical primer for t-tests and ANOVAs. Frontiers in Psychology. 2013; 4: 863.

[30] Sotiropoulos A, Travlos AK, Gissis I, Souglis AG, Grezios A. The Effect of a 4-Week Training Regimen on Body Fat and Aer-obic Capacity of Professional Soccer Players during the Tran-sition Period. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2009; 23: 1697–1703.

[31] Madic DM, Andrasic S, Gusic M, Molnar S, Radanovic D, Tra-jkovic N. Seasonal body composition variations in adolescent soccer players. International Journal of Morphology. 2018; 36: 877–800.

[32] Reilly T, Stirling A. Flexibility, warm-up and injuries in mature games players. Kinanthropometry IV (pp. 115–119). Routledge: London. 2003.

[33] Hawkins RD, Hulse MA, Wilkinson C, Hodson A, Gibson M. The association football medical research programme: an au-dit of injuries in professional football. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2001; 35: 43–47.

[34] Michailidis Y. Physical Condition Differences between Semi-Professional and Amateur Soccer Players. International Journal of Science Culture and Sport. 2018; 6: 191–202.

[35] Emmonds S, Sawczuk T, Scantlebury S, Till K, Jones B. Sea-sonal Changes in the Physical Performance of Elite Youth Fe-male Soccer Players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Re-search. 2020; 34: 2636–2643.

[36] Di Giminiani R, Visca C. Explosive strength and endurance adaptations in young elite soccer players during two soccer sea-sons. PLoS ONE. 2017; 12: e0171734.

[37] Morris R, Emmonds S, Jones B, Myers TD, Clarke ND, Lake J, et al. Seasonal changes in physical qualities of elite youth soc-cer players according to maturity status: comparisons with aged matched controls. Science and Medicine in Football. 2018; 2: 272–280.

[38] Ishida A, Rochau K, Findlay KP, Devero B, Duca M, Stone MH. Effects of an Initial Muscle Strength Level on Sports Perfor-mance Changes in Collegiate Soccer Players. Sports. 2020; 8: 127.

[39] Faigenbaum AD, Kraemer WJ, Blimkie CJR, Jeffreys I, Micheli LJ, Nitka M, et al. Youth Resistance Training: Updated Posi-tion Statement Paper from the National Strength and Condition-ing Association. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2009; 23: S60–S79.

[40] McMillan K, Helgerud J, Macdonald R, Hoff J. Physiological adaptations to soccer specific endurance training in professional youth soccer players. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2005; 39: 273–277.

[41] Vandorpe B, Vandendriessche J, Vaeyens R, Pion J, Matthys S, Lefevre J, et al. Relationship between sports participation and the level of motor coordination in childhood: a longitudinal ap-proach. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 2012; 15: 220–225.

Abstracted / indexed in

Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch) Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,200 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.

Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition aims to evaluate a journal’s value from multiple perspectives including the journal impact factor, descriptive data about a journal’s open access content as well as contributing authors, and provide readers a transparent and publisher-neutral data & statistics information about the journal.

Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) DOAJ is a unique and extensive index of diverse open access journals from around the world, driven by a growing community, committed to ensuring quality content is freely available online for everyone.

SCImago The SCImago Journal & Country Rank is a publicly available portal that includes the journals and country scientific indicators developed from the information contained in the Scopus® database (Elsevier B.V.)

Publication Forum - JUFO (Federation of Finnish Learned Societies) Publication Forum is a classification of publication channels created by the Finnish scientific community to support the quality assessment of academic research.

Scopus CiteScore 0.7 (2021) Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.

Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers Search for publication channels (journals, series and publishers) in the Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers to see if they are considered as scientific. (

Submission Turnaround Time