Article Data

  • Views 780
  • Dowloads 122

Original Research

Open Access

Relationships among burnout, job dissatisfaction, psychosocial work conditions and minor mental disorders of precarious employment in Taiwan

  • Ching-Mei Hsieh1
  • Sheryl Chen2
  • Tsu-Te Peng3
  • Po-Han Chen3
  • Albert Chen4
  • Chieh-Jan Chen5,6,*,

1School of Nursing, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, 11221 Taipei, Taiwan

2International Health Program, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, 11221 Taipei, Taiwan

3Division of Construction Engineering and Management, Department of Civil Engineering, National Taiwan University, 10617 Taipei, Taiwan

4Department of Public Health, Chung Shan Medical University, 40201 Taichung, Taiwan

5Center for General Education, National Taipei University, 237303 New Taipei City, Taiwan

6The Master Program in Smart Healthcare Management, National Taipei University, 237303 New Taipei City, Taiwan

DOI: 10.31083/j.jomh1807146 Vol.18,Issue 7,July 2022 pp.1-8

Published: 31 July 2022

*Corresponding Author(s): Chieh-Jan Chen E-mail:


Background: Precarious employment is a major determinant of mental health outcomes. The COVID-19 pandemic and development of digital economic platforms have enhanced the ratio of precarious employment relationship. The aim of this study was to explore the relationships among burnout, job dissatisfaction, psychosocial work conditions and minor mental disorders of precarious employment. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted, using the questionnaire from a national survey of employees in 2013. Minor mental disorder was measured using the five-item brief symptom rating scale (BSRS-5). 1909 males and 1499 females, with a total of 3408 non-standard employees aged 20 to 65, including short-term and temporary precarious employment, have been analyzed. Also obtained were participants’ sex, age, type of industry, status of shift work, job dissatisfaction, burnout as well as psychosocial work conditions. Results: The prevalence of minor mental disorders among precarious work condition in man and women were 16.08% and 19.35%, respectively. When we adjusted age and status of shift work, associations between minor mental disorders and female, job dissatisfaction, increased scores in burnout, and high psychological demand of work was noticed. When we further categorized by sex, it was found that job dissatisfaction and increased scores in burnout were significantly related with an increased risk for minor mental disorders in both male and female workers. The odds of minor mental disorders was significantly related with an increased scores in psychological demand of work among female precarious workers. Conclusions: This research study provides directions for future researches.


job dissatisfaction; minor mental disorders; precarious employment; psychosocial work conditions

Cite and Share

Ching-Mei Hsieh,Sheryl Chen,Tsu-Te Peng,Po-Han Chen,Albert Chen,Chieh-Jan Chen. Relationships among burnout, job dissatisfaction, psychosocial work conditions and minor mental disorders of precarious employment in Taiwan. Journal of Men's Health. 2022. 18(7);1-8.


[1] Prince M, Patel V, Saxena S, Maj M, Maselko J, Phillips MR, et al. No health without mental health. The Lancet. 2007; 370: 859–877.

[2] Lee M, Liao S, Lee Y, Wu C, Tseng M, Gau S, et al. Develop-ment and verification of validity and reliability of a short screen-ing instrument to identify psychiatric morbidity. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association. 2003; 102: 687–694.

[3] Quinlan M, Mayhew C, Bohle P. The global expansion of pre-carious employment, work disorganization, and consequences for occupational health: placing the debate in a comparative his-torical context. International Journal of Health Services. 2001; 31: 507–536.

[4] Benach J, Muntaner C. Precarious employment and health: de-veloping a research agenda. Journal of Epidemiology and Com-munity Health. 2007; 61: 276–277.

[5] Kreshpaj B, Orellana C, Burström B, Davis L, Hemmingsson T, Johansson G, et al. What is precarious employment? A system-atic review of definitions and operationalizations from quantita-tive and qualitative studies. Scandinavian Journal of Work, En-vironment & Health. 2020; 46: 235–247.

[6] Kalleberg AL. Precarious Work, Insecure Workers: Employ-ment Relations in Transition. American Sociological Review. 2009; 74: 1–22.

[7] Buckle C. Research during the COVID-19 pandemic: ethics, gender and precarious work. International Journal of Housing Policy. 2021; 21: 433–450.

[8] Blustein DL, Duffy R, Ferreira JA, Cohen-Scali V, Cinamon RG, Allan BA. Unemployment in the time of COVID-19: a research agenda. Journal of Vocational Behavior. 2020; 119: 103436.

[9] Anam MZ, Warsito T, Al-Fadhat F, Pribadi U, Sugito S. COVID-19 and Decent Work: Online Media Coverage on In-donesian Female Migrant Domestic Workers in Malaysia and Taiwan. Sociology and Technoscience. 2021; 11: 160–193.

[10] Muntaner C. Digital Platforms, Gig Economy, Precarious Em-ployment, and the Invisible Hand of Social Class. International Journal of Health Services. 2018; 48: 597–600.

[11] Gray BJ, Grey C, Hookway A, Homolova L, Davies AR. Differ-ences in the impact of precarious employment on health across population subgroups: a scoping review. Perspectives in Public Health. 2021; 141: 37–49.

[12] Allan BA, Autin KL, Wilkins-Yel KG. Precarious work in the 21st century: A psychological perspective. Journal of Vocational Behavior. 2021; 126: 103491.

[13] Benavides FG, Benach J, Muntaner C, Delclos GL, Catot N, Amable M. Associations between temporary employment and occupational injury: what are the mechanisms? Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2006; 63: 416–421.

[14] Quesnel-Vallée A, DeHaney S, Ciampi A. Temporary work and depressive symptoms: a propensity score analysis. Social Sci-ence & Medicine. 2010; 70: 1982–1987.

[15] Kalleberg AL, Hewison K. Precarious Work and the Challenge for Asia. American Behavioral Scientist. 2013; 57: 271–288.

[16] Benach J, Vives A, Tarafa G, Delclos C, Muntaner C. What should we know about precarious employment and health in 2025? Framing the agenda for the next decade of research. In-ternational Journal of Epidemiology. 2016; 45: 232–238.

[17] García-Pérez C, Prieto-Alaiz M, Simón H. A New Multidimen-sional Approach to Measuring Precarious Employment. Social Indicators Research. 2017; 134: 437–454.

[18] Padrosa E, Bolíbar M, Julià M, Benach J. Comparing Precari-ous Employment across Countries: Measurement Invariance of the Employment Precariousness Scale for Europe (EPRES-E). Social Indicators Research. 2021; 154: 893–915.

[19] Matilla-Santander N, Lidón-Moyano C, González-Marrón A, Bunch K, Martín-Sánchez JC, Martínez-Sánchez JM. Measuring precarious employment in Europe 8 years into the global crisis. Journal of Public Health. 2019; 41: 259–267.

[20] Rönnblad T, Grönholm E, Jonsson J, Koranyi I, Orellana C, Kreshpaj B, et al. Precarious employment and mental health: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health. 2019; 45: 429–443.

[21] Benach J, Vives A, Amable M, Vanroelen C, Tarafa G, Muntaner C. Precarious employment: understanding an emerging social determinant of health. Annual Review of Public Health. 2014; 35: 229–253.

[22] Tompa E, Scott-Marshall H, Dolinschi R, Trevithick S, Bhat-tacharyya S. Precarious employment experiences and their health consequences: towards a theoretical framework. Work. 2007; 28: 209–224.

[23] Yoo KB, Park EC, Jang SY, Kwon JA, Kim SJ, Cho KH, et al. Association between employment status change and depression in Korean adults. BMJ Open. 2016; 6: e008570.

[24] Kraut A, Walld R. Influence of lack of full-time employment on attempted suicide in Manitoba, Canada. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health. 2003; 29: 15–21.

[25] Min K, Park S, Hwang SH, Min J. Precarious employment and the risk of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Preventive Medicine. 2015; 71: 72–76.

[26] Julià M, Vives A, Tarafa G, Benach J. Changing the way we understand precarious employment and health: Precarisation af-fects the entire salaried population. Safety Science. 2017; 100: 66–73.

[27] Canivet C, Aronsson G, Bernhard-Oettel C, Leineweber C, Moghaddassi M, Stengård J, et al. The negative effects on men-tal health of being in a non-desired occupation in an increasingly precarious labour market. SSM - Population Health. 2017; 3: 516–524.

[28] Han K, Chang J, Won E, Lee M, Ham B. Precarious employment associated with depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in adult wage workers. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2017; 218: 201–209.

[29] Vogel M, Braungardt T, Meyer W, Schneider W. The effects of shift work on physical and mental health. Journal of Neural Transmission. 2012; 119: 1121–1132.

[30] Yarmohammadi H, Pourmohammadi A, Sohrabi Y, Eskandari S, Poursadeghiyan M, Biglari H, et al. Work shift and its effect on nurses’ health and welfare. Social Sciences. 2016; 11: 2337–2341.

[31] Peterson U, Demerouti E, Bergström G, Samuelsson M, As-berg M, Nygren A. Burnout and physical and mental health among Swedish healthcare workers. Journal of Advanced Nurs-ing. 2008; 62: 84–95.

[32] Kaviani H, Khaghanizade M. The relationship between burnout and mental health among nurses. Tehran University Medical Journal TUMS Publications. 2007; 65: 65–75.

[33] Extremera N, Mérida-López S, Quintana-Orts C, Rey L. On the association between job dissatisfaction and employee’s men-tal health problems: does emotional regulation ability buffer the link? Personality and Individual Differences. 2020; 155: 109710.

[34] Stansfeld S, Candy B. Psychosocial work environment and mental health–a meta-analytic review. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health. 2006; 32: 443–462.

[35] Matilla-Santander N, Martín-Sánchez JC, González-Marrón A, Cartanyà-Hueso À, Lidón-Moyano C, Martínez-Sánchez JM. Precarious employment, unemployment and their association with health-related outcomes in 35 European countries: a cross-sectional study. Critical Public Health. 2021; 31: 404–415.

[36] Moscone F, Tosetti E, Vittadini G. The impact of precarious em-ployment on mental health: the case of Italy. Social Science & Medicine. 2016; 158: 86–95.

[37] Kachi Y, Otsuka T, Kawada T. Precarious employment and the risk of serious psychological distress: a population-based cohort study in Japan. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health. 2014; 40: 465–472.

[38] Kim W, Park EC, Lee TH, Kim TH. Effect of working hours and precarious employment on depressive symptoms in South Korean employees: a longitudinal study. Occupational and En-vironmental Medicine. 2016; 73: 816–822.

[39] Jang SY, Jang SI, Bae HC, Shin J, Park EC. Precarious employ-ment and new-onset severe depressive symptoms: a population-based prospective study in South Korea. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health. 2015; 41: 329–337.

[40] Tsurugano S, Inoue M, Yano E. Precarious employment and health: analysis of the Comprehensive National Survey in Japan. Industrial Health. 2012; 50: 223–235.

[41] Hsiao HHM. Precarious work in Taiwan: a profile. American Behavioral Scientist. 2013; 57: 373–389.

[42] Bekaert G, Harvey CR. Research in emerging markets finance: looking to the future. Emerging Markets Review. 2002; 3: 429–448.

[43] Cranford CJ, Vosko LF, Zukewich N. The Gender of Precarious Employment in Canada. Relations Industrielles/Industrial Rela-tions. 2003; 58: 454–482.

[44] Cheng Y, Chen I, Chen C, Burr H, Hasselhorn HM. The influ-ence of age on the distribution of self-rated health, burnout and their associations with psychosocial work conditions. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 2013; 74: 213–220.

[45] Hsieh CM, Chen CJ, Peng TT, Chen S, Chen PH. The rela-tionship between workplace justice and self-reported occupa-tional accidents in construction employees of Taiwan. Industrial Health. 2020; 58: 282–286.

[46] Chen KY, Yang CM, Lien CH, Chiou HY, Lin MR, Chang HR, et al. Burnout, job satisfaction, and medical malpractice among physicians. International Journal of Medical Sciences. 2013; 10: 1471–1478.

[47] Kristensen TS, Borritz M, Villadsen E, Christensen KB. The Copenhagen Burnout Inventory: a new tool for the assessment of burnout. Work & Stress. 2005; 19: 192–207.

[48] Yeh WY, Cheng Y, Chen CJ, Hu PY, Kristensen TS. Psycho-metric properties of the chinese version of copenhagen burnout inventory among employees in two companies in Taiwan. Inter-national Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 2007; 14: 126–133.

[49] Karasek RA. Job Demands, Job Decision Latitude, and Mental Strain: Implications for Job Redesign. Administrative Science Quarterly. 1979; 24: 285–308.

[50] Cheng Y, Luh WM, Guo YL. Reliability and validity of the chi-nese version of the job content questionnaire in Taiwanese work-ers. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 2003; 10: 15–30.

[51] Lu IC, Yen Jean MC, Lei SM, Cheng HH, Wang JD. BSRS-5 (5-item Brief Symptom Rating Scale) scores affect every aspect of quality of life measured by WHOQOL-BREF in healthy work-ers. Quality of Life Research. 2011; 20: 1469–1475.

[52] Chan KL, Lee CSC, Cheng CM, Hui LY, So WT, Yu TS, et al. Investigating the Relationship between Weight-Related Self-Stigma and Mental Health for Overweight/Obese Children in Hong Kong. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease. 2019; 207: 637–641.

[53] Chen HC, Wu CH, Lee YJ, Liao SC, Lee MB. Validity of the five-item Brief Symptom Rating Scale among subjects admitted for general health screening. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association. 2005; 104: 824–829.

[54] Faragher EB, Cass M, Cooper CL. The Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Health: a Meta-Analysis. From stress to wellbeing Volume 1. 2013; 254–271.

[55] Dirlam J, Zheng H. Job satisfaction developmental trajectories and health: a life course perspective. Social Science & Medicine. 2017; 178: 95–103.

[56] Tatsuse T, Sekine M. Job dissatisfaction as a contributor to stress-related mental health problems among Japanese civil ser-vants. Industrial Health. 2013; 51: 307–318.

[57] Tamhane AR, Westfall AO, Burkholder GA, Cutter GR. Preva-lence odds ratio versus prevalence ratio: choice comes with con-sequences. Statistics in Medicine. 2016; 35: 5730–5735.

Abstracted / indexed in

Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch) Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,200 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.

Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition aims to evaluate a journal’s value from multiple perspectives including the journal impact factor, descriptive data about a journal’s open access content as well as contributing authors, and provide readers a transparent and publisher-neutral data & statistics information about the journal.

Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) DOAJ is a unique and extensive index of diverse open access journals from around the world, driven by a growing community, committed to ensuring quality content is freely available online for everyone.

SCImago The SCImago Journal & Country Rank is a publicly available portal that includes the journals and country scientific indicators developed from the information contained in the Scopus® database (Elsevier B.V.)

Publication Forum - JUFO (Federation of Finnish Learned Societies) Publication Forum is a classification of publication channels created by the Finnish scientific community to support the quality assessment of academic research.

Scopus: CiteScore 0.9 (2023) Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.

Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers Search for publication channels (journals, series and publishers) in the Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers to see if they are considered as scientific. (

Submission Turnaround Time