The Impact of Assisted Swimming on Front Crawl Performance
1Department of Health and Sports Sciences, Tokyo Gakugei University, 184-8501 Koganei, Tokyo, Japan
2Department of Sports Science, Sendai University, 989-1693 Funaoka, Miyagi, Japan
3Faculty of Education, Tokyo Gakugei University, 184-8501 Koganei, Tokyo, Japan
4Graduate school of Education, Tokyo Gakugei University, 184-8501 Koganei, Tokyo, Japan
5Department of Physical Education and Sports, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal
6Research Center in Sports Sciences, Health Sciences and Human Development, CIDESD, 6201-001 Covilhã, Portugal
7Department of Sports Sciences, Douro Higher Institute of Educational Sciences, 4560-708 Penafiel, Portugal
8Department of Sports Sciences, University of Beira Interior, 6201-001 Covilhã, Portugal
DOI: 10.31083/j.jomh1807151 Vol.18,Issue 7,July 2022 pp.1-7
Published: 31 July 2022
Background: In the present study, we aimed to clarify the impact of the Assisted swim (A-swim; towing from propulsion direction) on front crawl performance at maximum and sub-maximum effort levels. Methods: Fourteen male collegiate swimmers (age, 21.0
swimming; towing; overspeed; stroke rate; stroke length
Shin-Ichiro Moriyama,Yasunori Watanabe,Kosuke Masuda,Yugo Toyoda,Jorge E. Morais,Pedro Forte,Henrique P. Neiva,Daniel A. Marinho. The Impact of Assisted Swimming on Front Crawl Performance. Journal of Men's Health. 2022. 18(7);1-7.
 Maglischo EW. Swimming fastest. Human Kinetics: Cham-paign, IL, USA. 2003.
 Girold S, Calmels P, Maurin D, Milhau N, Chatard JC. As-sisted and Resisted Sprint Training in Swimming. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2006; 20: 547–554.
 Williams BK, Sinclair PJ, Galloway M. Changes in stroke kinematics during resisted and assisted freestyle swimming. In Schwameder H, Strutzenberger G, Fastenbauer V, Lindinger S, Müller E (eds.) XXIV International Symposium on Biomechan-ics in Sports. Zalzburg: Austria. 2006.
 Craig AB, Pendergast DR. Relationships of stroke rate, distance per stroke, and velocity in competitive swimming. Medicine and Science in Sports. 1979; 11: 278–283.
 Tsunokawa T, Koga D, Mankyu H. Propulsion force of swim-mers’ hands and mechanical power in sprint training. Reaserch Journal of Sports Performance. 2021; 13: 181–194. (in Japanese)
 Chollet D, Chalies S, Chatard JC. A new index of coordination for the crawl: description and usefulness. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 2000; 21: 54–59.
 Fernandes RJ, Ribeiro J, Figueiredo P, Seifert L, Vilas-Boas JP. Kinematics of the hip and body center of mass in front crawl. Journal of Human Kinetics. 2012; 33: 15–23.
 Morouço PG, Barbosa TM, Arellano R, Vilas-Boas JP. Intra-cyclic Variation of Force and Swimming Performance. Interna-tional Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 2018; 13: 897–902.
 Seifert L, Chollet D, Rouard A. Swimming constraints and arm coordination. Human Movement Science. 2007; 26: 68–86.
 Toussaint HM, de Groot G, Savelberg HH, Vervoorn K, Hollan-der AP, van Ingen Schenau GJ. Active drag related to velocity in male and female swimmers. Journal of Biomechanics. 1988; 21: 435–438.
 Narita K, Nakashima M, Takagi H. Effect of leg kick on active drag in front-crawl swimming: Comparison of whole stroke and arms-only stroke during front-crawl and the streamlined posi-tion. Journal of Biomechanics. 2018; 76: 197–203.
 Maglischo EW, Maglischo CW, Zier DJ, Santos TR. The effect of sprint-assisted and sprint-resisted swimming on stroke me-chanics. Journal of Swimming Research. 1985; 1: 27–33.
 Abbes Z, Haddad M, Bibi KW, Mujika I, Martin C, Chamari K. Effect of Tethered Swimming as Postactivation Potentiation on Swimming Performance and Technical, Hemophysiological, and Psychophysiological Variables in Adolescent Swimmers. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 2020; 16: 311–315.
 Amaro N, Marinho DA, Batalha N, Marques MC, Morouço P. Reliability of tethered swimming evaluation in age group swim-mers. Journal of Human Kinetics. 2014; 41: 155–162.
 Kalva-Filho CA, Toubekis A, Zagatto AM, Silva ASD, Loures JP, Campos EZ, et al. Reliability and Validity of Tethered Swim-ming Lactate Minimum Test and their Relationship with Perfor-mance in Young Swimmers. Pediatric Exercise Science. 2018; 30: 383–392.
 Morouço P, Keskinen KL, Vilas-Boas JP, Fernandes RJ. Rela-tionship between Tethered Forces and the Four Swimming Tech-niques Performance. Journal of Applied Biomechanics. 2011; 27: 161–169.
 Morouço PG, Marinho DA, Keskinen KL, Badillo JJ, Marques MC. Tethered Swimming can be used to Evaluate Force Con-tribution for Short-Distance Swimming Performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2014; 28: 3093–3099.
 Nagle Zera J, Nagle EF, Nagai T, Lovalekar M, Abt JP, Lephart SM. Tethered Swimming Test: Reliability and the Association with Swimming Performance and Land-Based Anaerobic Per-formance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2021; 35: 212–220.
 Neiva H, Morouço P, Silva AJ, Marques MC, Marinho DA. The Effect of Warm-up on Tethered Front Crawl Swimming Forces. Journal of Human Kinetics. 2011; 29A: 113–119.
 Papoti M, da Silva ASR, Kalva-Filho CA, Araujo GG, Santiago V, Martins LB, et al. Tethered Swimming for the Evaluation and Prescription of Resistance Training in Young Swimmers. Inter-national Journal of Sports Medicine. 2017; 38: 125–133.
 Ruiz-Navarro JJ, Morouço PG, Arellano R. Relationship be-tween Tethered Swimming in a Flume and Swimming Perfor-mance. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Perfor-mance. 2020; 15: 1087–1094.
 Cuenca Fernández F, Gay Párraga A, Ruiz Navarro JJ, Arel-lano Colomina R. The effect of different loads on semi-tethered swimming and its relationship with dry-land performance vari-ables. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport. 2020; 20: 90–106.
 Dominguez-Castells R, Arellano R. Effect of different loads on stroke and coordination parameters during freestyle semi-tethered swimming. Journal of Human Kinetics. 2012; 32: 33–41.
 TRITONWEAR. Race analysis. 2016. Available at: https://www. tritonwear.com/race-analysis (Accessed: 26 Janurary 2022).
 Osborough C, Daly D, Payton C. Effect of swim speed on leg-to-arm coordination in unilateral arm amputee front crawl swim-mers. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2015; 33: 1523–1531.
 Morais J, Barbosa TM, Lopes VP, Marques MC, Marinho DA. Propulsive force of upper limbs and its relationship to swim velocity in the butterfly stroke. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 2021; 42: 1105–1112.
 Morais JE, Forte P, Nevill AM, Barbosa TM, Marinho DA. Upper-limb kinematics and kinetics imbalances in the determi-nants of front-crawl swimming at maximal speed in young inter-national level swimmers. Scientific Reports. 2020; 10: 11683.
 Barbosa TM, Morais JE, Marques MC, Silva AJ, Marinho DA, Kee YH. Hydrodynamic profile of young swimmers: Changes over a competitive season. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports. 2015; 25: e184–e196.
 Neiva HP, Fernandes RJ, Cardoso R, Marinho DA, Abraldes JA. Monitoring master swimmers’ performance and active drag evo-lution along a training mesocycle. International Journal of Envi-ronmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18: 3569.
 Moriyama S, Kurono T, Watanabe Y, Wakayoshi K. The ef-fect of different tethered forces on assisted freestyle swimming performance. Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine. 2018; 7: 430.
 Ferguson CJ. An effect size primer: A guide for clinicians and researchers. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. 2009; 40, 532–538.
 Cohen J. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. 2nd edn. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Hillsdale, NJ, USA. 1998.
 Toussaint HM, Hollander AP. Energetics of competitive swim-ming. Implications for training programmes. Sports Medicine. 1994; 18: 384–405.
 Marinho DA, Silva AJ, Reis VM, Barbosa TM, Vilas-Boas JP, Alves FB, et al. Three-dimensional CFD analysis of the hand and forearm in swimming. Journal of Applied Biomechanics. 2011; 27: 74–80.
 Suito H, Nunome H, Ikegami Y. A quantitative evaluation of the high elbow technique in front crawl. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2017; 35: 1264–1269.
 Takagi H, Wilson B. Calculating hydrodynamic force by using pressure differences in swimming. In Keskinen KL, Komi PV, Hollander AP (eds.) Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming VIII (pp. 101–106). University of Jyväskylä: Jyväskylä, Fin-land. 1999.
 Tsunokawa T, Mankyu H, Takagi H, Ogita F. The effect of using paddles on hand propulsive forces and Froude efficiency in arm-stroke-only front-crawl swimming at various velocities. Human Movement Science. 2019; 64: 378–388.
Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch) Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,200 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.
Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition aims to evaluate a journal’s value from multiple perspectives including the journal impact factor, descriptive data about a journal’s open access content as well as contributing authors, and provide readers a transparent and publisher-neutral data & statistics information about the journal.
Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) DOAJ is a unique and extensive index of diverse open access journals from around the world, driven by a growing community, committed to ensuring quality content is freely available online for everyone.
SCImago The SCImago Journal & Country Rank is a publicly available portal that includes the journals and country scientific indicators developed from the information contained in the Scopus® database (Elsevier B.V.)
Publication Forum - JUFO (Federation of Finnish Learned Societies) Publication Forum is a classification of publication channels created by the Finnish scientific community to support the quality assessment of academic research.
Scopus CiteScore 0.7 (2021) Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.
Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers Search for publication channels (journals, series and publishers) in the Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers to see if they are considered as scientific. (https://kanalregister.hkdir.no/publiseringskanaler/Forside).