Article Data

  • Views 459
  • Dowloads 123

Original Research

Open Access Special Issue

Investigation of the Relationship between Mental Endurance and Psychological Well-Being of Male Chess Players

  • Arif Ozsari1,*,
  • Sirin Pepe2,†,
  • Alpaslan Gorucu3,†,

1Youth and Sports Provincial Directorate of the Ministry of Youth and Sports, 8000 Osmaniye, Turkey

2Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Duzce University, 81010 Duzce,Turkey

3Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Selcuk University, 42005 Konya, Turkey

DOI: 10.31083/j.jomh1807152 Vol.18,Issue 7,July 2022 pp.1-7

Published: 31 July 2022

(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Men's Psychological Health)

*Corresponding Author(s): Arif Ozsari E-mail:

† These authors contributed equally.


Background: The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between mental endurance and psychological well-being of male chess players. Methods: 87 male active licensed chess players participated in the study. Ethics committee approval was obtained for the research. Mental endurance scale, psychological well-being scale and personal information form were used to collect the research data. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed for the research scales. In addition to descriptive statistics, correlation and regression analyzes are included in the relational model. Results: Considering the average values obtained from the research scales, it was found that the mental endurance and psychological well-being levels of chess players were high, and there was a positive and high level relationship between mental endurance and psychological well-being within the scope of the relational model (r = 0.742; p < 0.001), and it has been found that mental endurance has a significantly high and positive contribution on psychological well-being in sports (β= 0.745; p < 0.001). Conclusions: It can be said that as the mental endurance of chess players improves, their psychological health will also be positively affected. It can also be stated that, especially by directing the young generation to chess, their mental endurance and psychological health will be improved in a positive way.


mental endurance; psychological well-being; chess players; men

Cite and Share

Arif Ozsari,Sirin Pepe,Alpaslan Gorucu. Investigation of the Relationship between Mental Endurance and Psychological Well-Being of Male Chess Players. Journal of Men's Health. 2022. 18(7);1-7.


[1] Gucciardi DF. Mental toughness: Progress and prospects. Cur-rent Opinion in Psychology. 2017; 16: 17–23.

[2] Middleton SC, Marsh HM, Martin AJ, Richards GE, Perry C. Discovering mental toughness: A qualitative study of mental toughness in elite athletes. Psychology Today. 2005; 22: 60–72.

[3] Jones G, Hanton S, Connaughton D. A Framework of mental toughness in the world’s best performers. The Sport Psycholo-gist. 2007; 21: 243–264.

[4] Kuan G, Roy J. Goal profiles, mental toughness and its influ-ence on performance outcomes among wushu athletes. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine. 2007; 6: 28–33.

[5] Jones G, Moorhouse A. Developing mental toughness: Gold medal strategies for transforming your business performance. Spring Hill: UK. 2008.

[6] Liew GC, Kuan G, Chin NS, Hashim HA. Mental toughness in sport. German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research. 2019; 49: 381–394.

[7] Madrigal L, Hamill S, Gill DL. Mind over matter: The develop-ment of the mental toughness scale (MTS). Sport Psychologist. 2013; 27: 62–77.

[8] Crust L. A review and conceptual re-examination of mental toughness: Implications for future researchers. Personality and Individual Differences. 2008; 45: 576–583.

[9] Crust L, Clough PJ. Developing Mental Toughness: From re-search to practice. Journal of Sport Psychology in Action. 2011; 2: 21–32.

[10] Sahebalzamani M, Farahani H, Abasi R, Talebi M. The relation-ship between spiritual intelligence with psychological well be-ing and purpose in life of nurses. Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research. 2013; 18: 38–41.

[11] Edwards DJ, Steyn BJ. Sport psychological skills training and psychological well-being. South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation. 2008; 30: 15–28.

[12] Ryff CD, Singer BH. Know Thyself and Become what you are: A eudaimonic approach to psychological well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies. 2008; 9: 13–39.

[13] Dikkhat AB. Comparative study of physical health and mental health between chess and wrestling players of Aurangabad dis-trict. Think India Journal. 2019; 22: 1577–1583.

[14] Huppert FA. Psychological well-being: Evidence regarding its causes and consequences. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being. 2009; 1: 137–164.

[15] Connaughton D, Hanton S. Mental toughness in sport: Concep-tual and practical issues. Advances in Applied Sport Psychology. Routledge: London. 2008.

[16] Szymski D, Seiffert R. Chess. Injury and Health Risk Manage-ment in Sports. 2020; 42: 745–747.

[17] Mikhaylova IV, Stepanova ON. Competitive training models, methods and tools for chess players with health disorders. The-ory and Practice of Physical Culture. 2018; 11: 13.

[18] Salthouse TA. Mental Exercise and Mental Aging: Evaluating the validity of the “use it or lose it” hypothesis. Perspectives on Psychological Science. 2006; 1: 68–87.

[19] Mikhaylova IV, Zavalishina SY, Zbrueva YV, Bakulina ED, Rysakova OG, Eremin MV. Dynamics of general functional characteristics of an individual in the process of chess training. Journal of Biochemical Technology. 2021; 12: 61–66.

[20] Bull SJ, Shambrook CJ, James W, Brooks JE. Towards an under-standing of mental toughness in elite English cricketers. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology. 2005; 17: 209–227.

[21] Connaughton D, Hanton S, Jones G, Wadey R. Mental toughness research: Key issues in the area. International Journal of Sport Psychology. 2008; 39: 192–204.

[22] Gucciardi DF, Gordon S, Dimmock JA. Towards an understand-ing of mental toughness in Australian football. Journal of Ap-plied Sport Psychology. 2008; 20: 261–281.

[23] Gould D, Dieffenbach K, Moffett A. Psychological character-istics and their development in olympic champions. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology. 2002; 14: 172–204.

[24] Sheard M, Golby J. Effect of a psychological skills training pro-gramme on swimming performance and positive psychological development. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psy-chology. 2006; 4: 149–169.

[25] Golby J, Wood P. The effects of psychological skills training on mental toughness and psychological well–being of student–athletes. Psychology. 2016; 7: 901–913.

[26] Ghorbani S. Effects of mental fatigue on memory function of expert chess players. Iranian journal of Learning and Memory. 2020; 2: 25–33.

[27] Karasar N. Scientific research method. Nobel: Ankara. 2019.

[28] Erdogan N. Mental Toughness Scale (MTS): The study of adap-tation to Turkish, validity and reliability study. International Journal of Science Culture and Sport. 2016; 4: 652–664.

[29] Diener E, Wirtz D, Tov W, Kim-Prieto C, Choi D, Oishi S, et al. New well-being measures: Short scales to assess flourishing and positive and negative feelings. Social Indicators Research. 2010; 97: 143–156.

[30] Telef BB. The adaptation of psychological well-being into Turk-ish: A validity and reliability study. Hacettepe University Jour-nal of Education. 2013; 28: 374–384.

[31] Doll WJ, Xia W, Torkzadeh G. A confirmatory factor analysis of the end-user computing satisfaction instrument. MIS Quarterly. 1994; 18: 453–461.

[32] Schermelleh-Engel K, Moosbrugger H, Muller H. Evaluating the fit of structural equation models: tests of significance and descriptive goodnessof-fit measures. Methods of Psychological Research. 2003; 8: 23–74.

[33] Hooper D, Coughlan J, Mullen MR. Structural equation mod-elling: Guidelines for determining model fit. Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods. 2008; 6: 53–60.

[34] Kline RB. Principles and practice of structural equation model-ing. 3rd edn. The Guilford Press: New York. 2011.

[35] Hair JF, Black WC, Babin BJ, Anderson RE. Multivariate data analysis. 7th edn. Pearson Education Limited: London. 2014.

[36] Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS. Using multivariate statistics. Person Education: Boston. 2015.

[37] Stamp E, Crust L, Swann C, Perry J, Clough P, Marchant D. Re-lationships between mental toughness and psychological well-being in undergraduate students. Personality and Individual Dif-ferences. 2015; 75: 170–174.

[38] Nicholls AR, Polman RCJ, Levy AR, Backhouse SH. Mental toughness, optimism, pessimism, and coping among athletes. Personality and Individual Differences. 2008; 44: 1182–1192.

[39] Crust L, Clough PJ. Relationship between mental toughness and physical endurance. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 2005; 100: 192–194.

[40] Orhan S. The relationship between emotional intelligence and mental toughness in individual and team athletes [Master’s the-sis]. Marmara University Health Sciences Institute. 2018.

[41] Yildiz AB. Examining the relationship between mental tough-ness and self-efficacy levels in athletes [Doctoral dissertation]. Yıldırım Beyazıt University Health Sciences Institute. 2017.

[42] Akman D. Examining the relationship between imagery, self-talk, and coping styles of adult athletes with mental resilience [Doctoral dissertation]. Marmara University Health Sciences In-stitute. 2019.

[43] Bahadır G, Adilogulları İ. Examination of the relationship be-tween mental toughness and emotional intelligence in university students who do sports. International Journal of Sport Exercise and Training Sciences. 2020; 6: 117–128.

[44] Gulhan A, Sahin A. The role of emotional self-efficacy in de-termining mental toughness in athletes. International Journal of Turkish Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2021; 1: 58–73.

[45] Guvendi B, Turksoy A, Guclu M, Konter E. Examining the courage levels and mental toughness of professional wrestlers. International Journal of Sport Exercise and Training Sciences. 2018; 4: 70–78.

[46] Kurtulget E, Kaplan G, Cepikkurt F. Determining the role of passion and mental toughness for burnout at basketball player. Turkish Journal of Sport Science. 2018; 2: 82–91.

[47] Bozlar V. Investigation of the relationship between mental toughness, imagery and team integrity characteristics of profes-sional football players [Doctoral dissertation]. Kirikkale Univer-sity Health Sciences Institute. 2020.

[48] Yardımcı A, Sadık R, Kardas NT. The relationship between loneliness levels and sport mental resistance levels of American football players. Journal of Sport Sciences Researches. 2017; 2: 7990.

[49] Ozdemir S, Bicer T. The relationship between emotional intel-ligence and mental toughness of coach and assistant coaches working in professional football leagues. International Journal of Sport Exercise and Training Sciences. 2022; 8: 1–11.

[50] Cankurtaran Z. The effect of the mental training skills used by the archers in the competition environment on the ranking shot scores. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Stud-ies. 2020; 6: 13–29.

[51] Connaughton D, Hanton S, Jones G. The development and main-tenance of mental toughness in the world’s best performers. The Sport Psychologist. 2010; 24: 168–193.

[52] Pourranjbar M, Khodadad MR, Farid Fathi M. Correlation be-tween sport participation, psychological well-being and physi-cal complaints among students of Kerman university of medical sciences. Journal of Health Promotion Management. 2019; 8: 6473.

[53] Edwards DJ, Edwards SD, Basson CJ. Psychological well-being and physical self-esteem in sport and exercise. International Journal of Mental Health Promotion. 2004; 6: 25–32.

[54] Woods D, Breslin G, Hassan D. A systematic review of the impact of sport-based interventions on the psychological well-being of people in prison. Mental Health and Physical Activity. 2017; 12: 50–61.

[55] Malebo A, van Eeden C, Wissing MP. Sport Participation, Psy-chological well-being, and psychosocial development in a group of young black adults. South African Journal of Psychology. 2007; 37: 188–206.

[56] Campbell E, Jones G. Psychological well-being in wheelchair sport participants and nonparticipants. Adapted Physical Activ-ity Quarterly. 1994; 11: 404–415.

[57] Hosseini SA, Besharat MA. Relation of resilience whit sport achievement and mental health in a sample of athletes. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2010; 5: 633–638.

[58] Lastima DG, Gayoles LAM. Effects of chess training on the psy-chological well-being of children in conflict with the law. Philip-pine Social Science Journal. 2020; 3: 137–138.

[59] Weinberg R, Butt J, Culp B. Coaches’ views of mental toughness and how it is built. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2011; 9: 156–172.

Abstracted / indexed in

Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch) Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,200 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.

Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition aims to evaluate a journal’s value from multiple perspectives including the journal impact factor, descriptive data about a journal’s open access content as well as contributing authors, and provide readers a transparent and publisher-neutral data & statistics information about the journal.

Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) DOAJ is a unique and extensive index of diverse open access journals from around the world, driven by a growing community, committed to ensuring quality content is freely available online for everyone.

SCImago The SCImago Journal & Country Rank is a publicly available portal that includes the journals and country scientific indicators developed from the information contained in the Scopus® database (Elsevier B.V.)

Publication Forum - JUFO (Federation of Finnish Learned Societies) Publication Forum is a classification of publication channels created by the Finnish scientific community to support the quality assessment of academic research.

Scopus: CiteScore 0.7 (2022) Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.

Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers Search for publication channels (journals, series and publishers) in the Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers to see if they are considered as scientific. (

Submission Turnaround Time