Article Data

  • Views 234
  • Dowloads 103

Original Research

Open Access Special Issue

The Influence of BMI Levels on the Values of Static and Dynamic Balance for Students (Men) of the Faculty of Physical Education and Sports

  • George Danut Mocanu1,†,
  • Gabriel Murariu2,*,†,
  • Ilie Onu3,4,5,†,

1Department of Individual Sports and Physical Therapy, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, “Dunarea de Jos” University of Galati, 800008 Galati, Romania

2Department of Chemistry, Physics and the Environment, Faculty of Sciences and Environment, “Dunarea de Jos” University of Galati, 800008 Galati, Romania

3Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medical Bioengineering, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Grigore T. Popa” Iasi, 700454 Iasi, Romania

4Doctoral School of Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection “Cristofor Simionescu”, Technical University “Gheorghe Asachi” Iasi, 700050 Iasi, Romania

5Department of Physiotherapy, Micromedica Clinic, 610119 Piatra Neamt, Romania

DOI: 10.31083/j.jomh1807156 Vol.18,Issue 7,July 2022 pp.1-9

Published: 31 July 2022

(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and sports in men: from health to sports performance)

*Corresponding Author(s): Gabriel Murariu E-mail:

† These authors contributed equally.


Background: Postural stability is a factor that conditions the motor performance of athletes and of different categories of the population involved in activities that require physical effort. The aim of the study is to highlight the differences that appear in terms of balance performance for students, depending on their classification on BMI levels. Methods: A group of 109 students from the Faculty of Physical Education and Sports (1st year undergraduate) participated in this study at the end of the academic year (May, 2019), being divided following the anthropometric assessment into 3 groups related to BMI levels (7 cases of underweight, BMI = 17.21 ± 1.11; 83 cases of normal weight, BMI = 22.29 ± 1.56; 19 cases of overweight, BMI = 27.97 ±2.89). The research is cross-sectional, using the MANOVA statistical calculation procedure (multivariate and univariate test—with Bonferroni Post Hoc Test and comparison of significance between the mean values of the 3 defined groups, for the 7 applied balance tests). Results: Univariate test results indicate values of F associated with statistically insignificant thresholds (p > 0.05) for most of the tests used, with weak and very weak values of size effect (Ƞ2p). This aspect is also reinforced by the differences between the averages of the analyzed pairs, where only the statistically significant superiority (p < 0.05) of the underweight over the overweight for the Stork test is noticed. The underweight group achieves slightly superior performance in the assessments for Standing balance test, Stork test, Flamingo test, Walk and turn field sobriety test, and that of the normal weight for Functional reach test and Bass test, the overweight having the poorest results in most tests; the differences between the 3 BMI levels analyzed are insignificant (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Even if underweight and normal weight have better average scores than overweight, the lack of statistical significance of these differences can be explained by student specialization, constant involvement in physical performance, curricular or leisure activities improving performance on balance tests for the overweight category. These results reflect the particularities of the studied group and cannot be generalized for the university population, especially due to the numerically reduced group of underweight people.


students; balance tests; BMI levels; postural stability

Cite and Share

George Danut Mocanu,Gabriel Murariu,Ilie Onu. The Influence of BMI Levels on the Values of Static and Dynamic Balance for Students (Men) of the Faculty of Physical Education and Sports. Journal of Men's Health. 2022. 18(7);1-9.


[1] Han J, Anson J, Waddington G, Adams R, Liu Y. The Role of Ankle Proprioception for Balance Control in relation to Sports Performance and Injury. BioMed Research International. 2015; 2015: 842804.

[2] Porto HD, Pechak C, Smith D, Reed-Jones R. Biomechanical Effects of Obesity on Balance. International Journal of Exercise Science 2012; 5: 301–320.

[3] Pagnotti G, Haider A, Yang A, Cottell K, Tuppo C, Tong K, et al. Postural Stability in Obese Preoperative Bariatric Patients Using Static and Dynamic Evaluation. Obesity Facts. 2020; 13: 499–513.

[4] Verbecque E, Coetzee D, Ferguson G, Smits-Engelsman B. High BMI and Low Muscular Fitness Predict Low Motor Competence in School-Aged Children Living in Low-Resourced Areas. Inter-national Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18: 7878.

[5] Alhusaini AA, Melam G, Buragadda S. The role of body mass index on dynamic balance and muscle strength in Saudi schoolchildren. Science & Sports. 2020; 35: 395.e1–395.e9.

[6] Steinberg N, Nemet D, Pantanowitz M, Eliakim A. Gait Pattern, Impact to the Skeleton and Postural Balance in Overweight and Obese Children: A Review. Sports. 2018; 6: 75.

[7] do Nascimento JA, Silva CC, dos Santos HH, de Almeida Fer-reira JJ, de Andrade PR. A preliminary study of static and dy-namic balance in sedentary obese young adults: the relationship between BMI, posture and postural balance. Clinical Obesity. 2017; 7: 377–383.

[8] Cancela Carral JM, Ayán C, Sturzinger L, Gonzalez G. Relation-ships between Body Mass Index and Static and Dynamic Bal-ance in Active and Inactive Older Adults. Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy. 2019; 42: E85–E90.

[9] Dutil M, Handrigan GA, Corbeil P, Cantin V, Simoneau M, Teasdale N, et al. The impact of obesity on balance control in community-dwelling older women. AGE. 2013; 35: 883–890.

[10] Park J, Lee KH. The effect of musculoskeletal disorders on body regions and pain levels in elderly people on dynamic balance ability. Journal of Men’s Health. 2020; 16: 98–108.

[11] Kang SJ, Ko KJ, Yoon JR, Yoo CG, Park S, Ha GC. Changes and differences in functional fitness among older adults over a four year period. Journal of Men’s Health. 2021; 17: 70–76.

[12] Menegoni F, Galli M, Tacchini E, Vismara L, Cavigioli M, Capodaglio P. Gender-specific Effect of Obesity on Balance. Obesity. 2009; 17: 1951–1956.

[13] Błaszczyk JW, Cieślinska-Świder J, Plewa M, Zahorska-Markiewicz B, Markiewicz A. Effects of excessive body weight on postural control. Journal of Biomechanics. 2009; 42: 1295–1300.

[14] Błaszczyk JW, Cieślinska-Świder J. Directional Measures of Postural Sway Applied to the Diagnostic of Postural Stability in the Population of Adult Women with Different Body Mass Index. ARC Journal of Neuroscience. 2019; 4: 12.

[15] Golshaei B. Dynamic and static balance differences based on gender and sport participation. The Graduate School of Social Sciences of Middle East Technical University. 2013.

[16] Clark KN. Balance and Strength Training for Obese Individuals. ACSM’s Health & Fitness Journal. 2004; 8: 14–20.

[17] Teasdale N, Simoneau M, Corbeil P, Handrigan G, Tremblay A, Hue O. Obesity Alters Balance and Movement Control. Current Obesity Reports. 2013; 2: 235–240.

[18] Handrigan G, Hue O, Simoneau M, Corbeil P, Marceau P, Marceau S, et al. Weight loss and muscular strength affect static balance control. International Journal of Obesity. 2010; 34: 936–942.

[19] Ricotti L. Static and dynamic balance in young athletes. Journal of Human Sciences and Extension. 2011; 6: 616–628.

[20] Gioftsidou AF, Malliou P, Pafis G, Beneka A, Tsapralis K, So-fokleous P, et al. Balance training programs for soccer injuries prevention. Journal of Human Sciences and Extension. 2012; 7: 639–647.

[21] Robert Wood, “Balance Fitness Tests”. Topend Sports Website. 2008. Available at: ce.htm (Accessed: 27 January 2022).

[22] Uchechukwu Chukwuemeka, Kim Jackson, Lucinda hampton, Lauren Lopez, Admin, Rachael Lowe and Evan Thomas Func-tional Reach Test (FRT). Physiopedia n.d. Available at: https: // (Ac-cessed: 27 January 2022).

[23] Panta K, Arulsingh W, Oliver J, Sinha M, Rahman M. A study to associate the Flamingo Test and the Stork Test in measur-ing static balance on healthy adults. The Foot and Ankle Online Journal. 2015; 8: 4.

[24] Zhang Y, Wang W. Reliability of the Fukuda Stepping Test to Determine the Side of Vestibular Dysfunction. Journal of Inter-national Medical Research. 2011; 39: 1432–1437.

[25] World Medical Association. World Medical Association Decla-ration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research in-volving human subjects. Journal of the American Medical As-sociation. 2013; 310: 2191–2194.

[26] Sandu AS. Etica si deontologie profesionala. Lumen: Iasi. 2012.

[27] Armstrong RA. When to use the Bonferroni correction. Oph-thalmic and Physiological Optics. 2014; 34: 502–508.

[28] Opariuc DC. Statistica aplicata in stiintele socio-umane. Analiza asocierilor şi a diferenţelor statistice . Arhip Art: Sibiu. 2011.

[29] Sarma KVS, Vardhan RV. Multivariate Statistics Made Simple: A Practical Approach. 1st edn. Chapman and Hall/CRC: Boca Raton. 2018.

[30] Mi Hu, Jinjing W, Xu S, Yang Z. Influence of obesity and gender on the dynamic and static balance in children aged 8–10 years. Chinese Journal of School Health. 2021; 42: 1064–1067,1072.

[31] Cardoso L de P, Pereira K, Bertoncello D, Castro SS de, Fonseca LLM, Walsh IAP de. Overweight and balance in schoolchildren: a case-control study. Physics Education. 2017; 28: e2827.

[32] Goulding A, Jones IE, Taylor RW, Piggot JM, Taylor D. Dy-namic and static tests of balance and postural sway in boys: ef-fects of previous wrist bone fractures and high adiposity. Gait & Posture. 2003; 17: 136–141.

[33] Deforche BI, Hills AP, Worringham CJ, Davies PSW, Murphy AJ, Bouckaert JJ, et al. Balance and postural skills in normal-weight and overweight prepubertal boys. International Journal of Pediatric Obesity. 2009; 4: 175–182.

[34] Sarkar A, Singh M, Bansal N, Kapoor S. Effects of obesity on balance and gait alterations in young adults. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. 2011; 55: 7.

[35] Moein E, Movaseghi F. Relationship between some anthropo-metric indices with dynamic and static balance in sedentary fe-male college students. Turkish Journal of Sport and Exercise. 2016; 18: 45–49.

[36] Zhu W, Li Y, Wang B, Zhao C, Wu T, Liu T, et al. Objectively Measured Physical Activity Is Associated with Static Balance in Young Adults. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18: 10787.

[37] Ku PX, Abu Osman NA, Yusof A, Wan Abas WAB. Biomechan-ical evaluation of the relationship between postural control and body mass index. Journal of Biomechanics. 2012; 45: 1638–1642.

[38] Şı̇ mşek E, Arslan H. The Examination of Relationship Between Balance Performances and Some Anthropometric Characteris-tics of Athletes in Different Branches. International Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology. 2019; 8: 88–94.

[39] Perrin P, Deviterne D, Hugel F, Perrot C. Judo, better than dance, develops sensorimotor adaptabilities involved in balance con-trol. Gait & Posture. 2002; 15: 187–194.

[40] Lee K, Chun BO, Song HS, Kim KT, Kim J. Dynamic balance in male youth soccer players: the role of anthropometric and physical fitness factors. Journal of Men’s Health. 2021; 17: 135–141.

[41] Barati A, SafarCherati A, Aghayari A, Azizi F, Abbasi H. Evaluation of Relationship between Trunk Muscle Endurance and Static Balance in Male Students. Asian Journal of Sports Medicine. 2013; 4: 289–294.

[42] Ambegaonkar JP, Caswell SV, Winchester JB, Shimokochi Y, Cortes N, Caswell AM. Balance Comparisons between Female Dancers and Active Nondancers. Research Quarterly for Exer-cise and Sport. 2013; 84: 24–29.

[43] Olchowik G, Czwalik A. Effects of Soccer Training on Body Balance in Young Female Athletes Assessed Using Comput-erized Dynamic Posturography. Applied Sciences. 2020; 10: 1003.

[44] Özer Ö, Soslu R. Comparison of the Static Balance, Strength and Flexibility Characteristics of the University Students Who Taken Artistic Gymnastic Lesson. Turkish Journal of Sport and Exercise. 2019; 21: 229–233.

[45] Hyun SJ, Lee J, Lee BH. The Effects of Sit-to-Stand Training Combined with Real-Time Visual Feedback on Strength, Bal-ance, Gait Ability, and Quality of Life in Patients with Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial. International Journal of Envi-

ronmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18: 12229.

[46] Bellafiore M, Battaglia G, Bianco A, Paoli A, Farina F, Palma A. Improved postural control after dynamic balance training in older overweight women. Aging Clinical and Experimental Re-search. 2011; 23: 378–385.

[47] Cieślińska-Świder JM, Błaszczyk JW. Posturographic charac-teristics of the standing posture and the effects of the treat-ment of obesity on obese young women. PLoS ONE. 2019; 14: e0220962.

[48] Jorrakate C, Kongsuk J, Pongduang C, Sadsee B, Chanthorn P. Effect of yoga training on one leg standing and functional reach tests in obese individuals with poor postural control. Journal of Physical Therapy Science. 2015; 27: 59–62.

[49] Radhakrishnan DG. Effect of static asanas practices on core strength and balance among college students. International Jour-nal of Yogic, Human Movement and Sports Sciences. 2019; 4: 3.

[50] Davoodeh S, Sheikh M, Houminiyan Sharifabadi D, Bagherzadeh F. The effect of Wii Fit exergames on static balance and motor competence in obese and non-obese college women. Acta Gymnica. 2020; 50: 61–67.

[51] Fisek T, Agopyan A. Effects of six weeks of stable versus unsta-ble multi-dimensional surfaces balance training on passing skills and balance performance in young male basketball players. Jour-nal of Men’s Health. 2021; 17: 264–277.

Abstracted / indexed in

Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch) Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,200 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.

Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition aims to evaluate a journal’s value from multiple perspectives including the journal impact factor, descriptive data about a journal’s open access content as well as contributing authors, and provide readers a transparent and publisher-neutral data & statistics information about the journal.

Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) DOAJ is a unique and extensive index of diverse open access journals from around the world, driven by a growing community, committed to ensuring quality content is freely available online for everyone.

SCImago The SCImago Journal & Country Rank is a publicly available portal that includes the journals and country scientific indicators developed from the information contained in the Scopus® database (Elsevier B.V.)

Publication Forum - JUFO (Federation of Finnish Learned Societies) Publication Forum is a classification of publication channels created by the Finnish scientific community to support the quality assessment of academic research.

Scopus CiteScore 0.7 (2021) Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.

Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers Search for publication channels (journals, series and publishers) in the Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers to see if they are considered as scientific. (

Submission Turnaround Time