Article Data

  • Views 242
  • Dowloads 120

Original Research

Open Access Special Issue

The Stress, Mental Health Issues, and Mental Well-Being of COVID-19 Survivors: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis Study of Male University Students

  • Luis Miguel Dos Santos1,*,

1Endicott College, Woosong University, 34514 Daejeon, Republic of Korea

DOI: 10.31083/j.jomh1809180 Vol.18,Issue 9,September 2022 pp.1-13

Published: 22 September 2022

*Corresponding Author(s): Luis Miguel Dos Santos E-mail: luisdossantos@woosong.org

Abstract

Background: This study investigates the sources of stress and mental well-being based on the experiences and sense-making process of a group of COVID-19 survivors in South Korea. Currently, only a few studies have focused on the stress and mental and psychological well-being of COVID-19 survivors, particularly in undergraduate male university students in the East Asian region. Based on social stigma theory, this study was guided by the following research question: How would undergraduate male university students express and describe their sources of stress that may impact the mental and psychological well-being of COVID-19 survivors, particularly in the case of South Korea? Methods: Interpretative phenomenological analysis was employed. Two in-depth interview sessions, one focus group activity, and one member-checking interview session via the Zoom app were employed to collect lived experiences from eight COVID--19 survivors who are traditional-age (i.e., 18–25 years old) university students at South Korean universities. Results: Three themes were categorised: (1) Religious Practices and Churchgoers, (2) University Matters and Personnel, and (3) Challenges from Relatives, Neighbours, and Friends. All participants argued that their gender roles, behaviours, the individuals around them and their environment offer different sources of stress, which influence their mental health and well-being as COVID-19 survivors. Although they had already been discharged from hospital and were categorised as healthy people, the government and general public continued to offer pressure. Conclusions: The results of this study illustrated the issues of sources of stress and mental and psychological well-being of COVID-19 survivors, particularly in South Korea. Although the participants had recovered from the illness caused by COVID-19, they continued to face stress, challenges, and problems from the individuals around them and their environment. The results of this study may fill the gaps about the experiences between male university undergraduate students as COVID-19 survivors in South Korea.


Keywords

coronavirus; COVID-19 survivor; interpretative phenomenological analysis; South Korea; stigma; stress


Cite and Share

Luis Miguel Dos Santos. The Stress, Mental Health Issues, and Mental Well-Being of COVID-19 Survivors: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis Study of Male University Students. Journal of Men's Health. 2022. 18(9);1-13.

References

[1] Windarwati HD, Ati NAL, Paraswati MD, Ilmy SK, Supianto AA, Rizzal AF, et al. Stressor, coping mechanism, and motiva-tion among health care workers in dealing with stress due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia. Asian Journal of Psychiatry. 2021; 56: 102470.

[2] Dos Santos LM. Psychological stress, job satisfaction, and ca-reer decisions of taxi drivers during the COVID-19 pandemic: A study of male senior taxi drivers. Journal of Men’s Health. 2021; 17: 1–8.

[3] Dos Santos LM. The relationship between workforce sustain-ability, stress, and career decision: A study of kindergarten teachers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Sustainability. 2021; 13: 11521.

[4] Elflein J. Number of coronavirus (COVID-19) cases, recov-eries, and deaths worldwide as of December 16, 2021. 2021. Available at: https://www.statista.com/statistics/1087466/covid19-cases-recoveries-deaths-worldwide (Accessed: 16 Decem-ber 2021).

[5] Coronavirus (COVID-19), Republic of Korea. Cent Disaster Manag Hqrs 2021. Available at: http://ncov.mohw.go.kr/en/bdBoardList.do (Accessed: 23 December 2021).

[6] Dzieciatkowski T, Szarpak L, Filipiak KJ, Jaguszewski M, Ladny JR, Smereka J. COVID-19 challenge for modern medicine. Cardiology Journal. 2020; 27: 175–183.

[7] Ren J, Zhang A-H, Wang X-J. Traditional Chinese medicine for COVID-19 treatment. Pharmacological Research. 2020; 155: 104743.

[8] Smereka J, Szarpak L, Filipiak KJ. Modern medicine in COVID-19 era. Disaster and Emergency Medicine Journal. 2020; 5: 103–105.

[9] Beigel JH, Tomashek KM, Dodd LE, Mehta AK, Zingman BS, Kalil AC, et al. Remdesivir for the Treatment of Covid-19 —Final Report. New England Journal of Medicine. 2020; 383: 1813–1826.

[10] Felsenstein S, Herbert JA, McNamara PS, Hedrich CM. COVID-19: Immunology and treatment options. Clinical Im-munology. 2020; 215: 108448.

[11] Zhang R, Wang X, Ni L, Di X, Ma B, Niu S, et al. COVID-19: Melatonin as a potential adjuvant treatment. Life Sciences. 2020; 250: 117583.

[12] McCartney M. Medicine: before COVID-19, and after. The Lancet. 2020; 395: 1248–1249.

[13] Pfefferbaum B, North CS. Mental Health and the Covid-19 Pan-demic. New England Journal of Medicine. 2020; 383: 510–512.

[14] Usher K, Durkin J, Bhullar N. The COVID‐19 pandemic and mental health impacts. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing. 2020; 29: 315–318.

[15] Cheng C, Cheung MWL. Psychological responses to outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome: a prospective, multiple time-point study. Journal of Personality. 2005; 73: 261–285.

[16] Moreno C, Wykes T, Galderisi S, Nordentoft M, Crossley N, Jones N, et al. How mental health care should change as a con-sequence of the COVID-19 pandemic. The Lancet Psychiatry. 2020; 7: 813–824.

[17] Lyons D, Frampton M, Naqvi S, Donohoe D, Adams G, Glynn K. Fallout from the COVID-19 pandemic – should we prepare for a tsunami of post viral depression? Irish Journal of Psycho-logical Medicine. 2020; 37: 295–300.

[18] Son C, Hegde S, Smith A, Wang X, Sasangohar F. Effects of COVID-19 on college students’ mental health in the United States: Interview survey study. Journal of Medical Internet Re-search. 2020; 22: e21279.

[19] Webb L. COVID‐19 lockdown: a perfect storm for older peo-ple’s mental health. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing. 2021; 28: 300–300.

[20] Du J, Dong L, Wang T, Yuan C, Fu R, Zhang L, et al. Psy-chological symptoms among frontline healthcare workers dur-ing COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan. General Hospital Psychiatry. 2020; 67: 144–145.

[21] Cheng TL, Conca-Cheng AM. The Pandemics of Racism and COVID-19: Danger and Opportunity. Pediatrics. 2020; 146: e2020024836.

[22] Peprah P. Blame positioning in Covid-19 response: Refugees and asylees as victims. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease. 2021; 41: 102010.

[23] Chang A, Schulz PJ, Tu S, Liu MT. Communicative blame in online communication of the COVID-19 pandemic: Compu-tational approach of stigmatising cues and negative sentiment gauged with automated analytic techniques. Journal of Medical Internet Research. 2020; 22: e21504.

[24] Gritsenko V, Skugarevsky O, Konstantinov V, Khamenka N, Marinova T, Reznik A, et al. COVID 19 Fear, Stress, Anxiety,

and Substance Use among Russian and Belarusian University Students. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. 2021; 19: 2362–2368.

[25] Galea S, Merchant RM, Lurie N. The Mental Health Conse-quences of COVID-19 and Physical Distancing. JAMA Internal Medicine. 2020; 180: 817.

[26] Eisenberg D, Downs MF, Golberstein E, Zivin K. Stigma and Help Seeking for Mental Health among College Students. Med-ical Care Research and Review. 2009; 66: 522–541.

[27] Prowse R, Sherratt F, Abizaid A, Gabrys RL, Hellemans KGC, Patterson ZR, et al. Coping with the COVID-19 pandemic: Ex-amining gender differences in stress and mental health among university students. Front Psychiatry 2021;12.

[28] Metzger IW, Blevins C, Calhoun CD, Ritchwood TD, Gilmore AK, Stewart R, et al. An examination of the impact of maladap-tive coping on the association between stressor type and alcohol use in college. Journal of American College Health. 2017; 65: 534–541.

[29] Stroud I, Gutman LM. Longitudinal changes in the mental health of UK young male and female adults during the COVID-19 pan-demic. Psychiatry Research. 2021; 303: 114074.

[30] Borowiec S. Why young South Koreans are turn-ing away from religion. Aljazeera. 2017. Available at: https://www.aljazeera.com/features/2017/5/28/why-young-south-koreans-are-turning-away-from-religion (Accessed: 27 December 2021).

[31] Kim S, Suh. Educational ministries in Korean churches amid the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Christian Education in Korea. 2021; 65: 103–1031

[32] Grisafi JG. A Marginal Religion and COVID-19 in South Korea. Nova Religio. 2021; 25: 40–63.

[33] Lee S, Oh S. Religion and public conflict in the post-COVID era: The case of protestant churches in South Korea. Religions. 2021; 12: 851.

[34] Hamann HA, Ostroff JS, Marks EG, Gerber DE, Schiller JH, Lee SJC. Stigma among patients with lung cancer: a patient-reported measurement model. Psycho-Oncology. 2014; 23: 81–92.

[35] Chun M, Ferguson D. The intersections of culture, disability, and shame: The experiences of emerging adults with develop-mental disabilities and their families in South Korea. Review of Disability Studies. 2019;15:1–15.

[36] Ryu SY. Special Education and Social Services in Korea: Past, Present, and Future. International Review of Research in Mental Retardation. 2009; 3: 125–146.

[37] Goffman E. Stigma: Notes on the management of spoiled iden-tity. Prentice-Hall: Englewood Cliffs, N.J. 1963.

[38] Wagner AC, McShane KE, Hart TA, Margolese S. A focus group qualitative study of HIV stigma in the Canadian healthcare sys-tem. The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality. 2016; 25: 61–71.

[39] Ramaci T, Barattucci M, Ledda C, Rapisarda V. Social stigma during COVID-19 and its impact on HCWs outcomes. Sustain-ability. 2020; 12: 3834.

[40] Bagcchi S. Stigma during the COVID-19 pandemic. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2020; 20: 782.

[41] Böke BN, Mills DJ, Mettler J, Heath NL. Stress and Coping Pat-terns of University Students. Journal of College Student Devel-opment. 2019; 60: 85–103.

[42] Auerbach RP, Mortier P, Bruffaerts R, Alonso J, Benjet C, Cui-jpers P, et al. WHO World Mental Health surveys international college student project: Prevalence and distribution of mental disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 2018; 127: 623–638.

[43] American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II: Canadian Consortium Executive Summary Spring 2019. Silver Spring: MD. 2019.

[44] Na J, Kim N, Suk HW, Choi E, Choi JA, Kim JH, et al. Individualism-collectivism during the COVID-19 pan-demic: a field study testing the pathogen stress hypothesis of individualism-collectivism in Korea. Personality and Individual Differences. 2021; 183: 111127.

[45] Hong B, Bonczak BJ, Gupta A, Thorpe LE, Kontokosta CE. Ex-posure density and neighborhood disparities in COVID-19 in-fection risk. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2021; 118: e2021258118.

[46] Hong S, Choi S-H. The urban characteristics of high economic resilient neighborhoods during the COVID-19 pandemic: A Case of Suwon, South Korea. Sustainability. 2021; 13: 4679.

[47] Smith J, Flowers P, Larkin M. Interpretive phenomenological analysis: Theory, method, and research. Sage: Thousand Oaks, CA. 2009.

[48] Love B, Vetere A, Davis P. Should Interpretative Phenomeno-logical Analysis (IPA) be used with Focus Groups? Navigating the Bumpy Road of “Iterative Loops,” Idiographic Journeys, and “Phenomenological Bridges” International Journal of Qualita-tive Methods. 2020; 19: 160940692092160.

[49] Smith JA. Beyond the divide between cognition and discourse: Using interpretative phenomenological analysis in health psy-chology. Psychology & Health. 1996; 11: 261–271.

[50] Smith J, Flower P, Larkin M. Interpretative phenomenological analysis: Theory, method, and research. Sage: Thousand Oaks, CA. 2009.

[51] Smith J, Osborn M. Interpretative phenomenological analysis. Qualitative Psychology. A Practical Guide to Research Methods (pp. 53–80). Sage: London, UK. 2003.

[52] Merriam SB. Qualitative research: A guide to design and imple-mentation. Jossey Bass: San Francisco, CA. 2009.

[53] Saldana J. The coding manual for qualitative researchers. Sage Publications: Los Angeles, CA. 2013.

[54] Seidman I. Interviewing as qualitative research: A guide for re-searchers in education and the social sciences. 4th edn. Teachers College Press: New York, NY. 2013.

[55] Tang KH, Dos Santos LM. A brief discussion and application of interpretative phenomenological analysis in the field of health science and public health. International Journal of Learning and Development. 2017; 7: 123–132.

[56] Strauss A, Corbin JM. Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques. Sage: Thousand Oaks, CA. 1990.

[57] Kang YJ. Characteristics of the COVID-19 Outbreak in Ko-rea from the Mass Infection Perspective. Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health. 2020; 53: 168–170.

[58] Feng Y, Marchal T, Sperry T, Yi H. Influence of wind and rel-ative humidity on the social distancing effectiveness to prevent COVID-19 airborne transmission: a numerical study. Journal of Aerosol Science. 2020; 147: 105585.

[59] Shim E, Tariq A, Chowell G. Spatial variability in reproduction number and doubling time across two waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in South Korea, February to July, 2020. International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2021; 102: 1–9.

[60] Bicker L. Coronavirus: How South Korea is teaching empty classrooms. BBC News. 2020. Available at: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-52230371 (Accessed: 20 December 2021).

[61] Ko J, Paek S, Park S, Park J. A news big data analysis of issues in higher education in Korea amid the COVID-19 pandemic. Sus-tainability. 2021; 13: 7347.

[62] Brown JN, Mao Z, Chesser JW. A Comparison of Learning Out-comes in Culinary Education: Recorded Video vs. Live Demon-stration. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Education. 2013; 25: 103–109.

[63] Bhanot D, Singh T, Verma SK, Sharad S. Stigma and discrimi-nation during COVID-19 pandemic. Frontiers in Public Health. 2021; 8: 577018.

[64] Atinga RA, Alhassan NMI, Ayawine A. Recovered but Con-strained: Narratives of Ghanaian COVID-19 Survivors Expe-riences and Coping Pathways of Stigma, Discrimination, Social Exclusion and their Sequels. International Journal of Health Pol-icy and Management. 2021. (in press)

[65] Gulia A, Mishra S, Bhatnagar S. Multiple caregiving role with the novel challenge of COVID-19 pandemic: A crisis situation. Indian Journal of Palliative Care. 2020; 26: 163.


Abstracted / indexed in

Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch) Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,200 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.

Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition aims to evaluate a journal’s value from multiple perspectives including the journal impact factor, descriptive data about a journal’s open access content as well as contributing authors, and provide readers a transparent and publisher-neutral data & statistics information about the journal.

Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) DOAJ is a unique and extensive index of diverse open access journals from around the world, driven by a growing community, committed to ensuring quality content is freely available online for everyone.

SCImago The SCImago Journal & Country Rank is a publicly available portal that includes the journals and country scientific indicators developed from the information contained in the Scopus® database (Elsevier B.V.)

Publication Forum - JUFO (Federation of Finnish Learned Societies) Publication Forum is a classification of publication channels created by the Finnish scientific community to support the quality assessment of academic research.

Scopus CiteScore 0.7 (2021) Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.

Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers Search for publication channels (journals, series and publishers) in the Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers to see if they are considered as scientific. (https://kanalregister.hkdir.no/publiseringskanaler/Forside).

Submission Turnaround Time

Conferences

Top