Perceptions and Key Attributes of Exercise Among Korean Men and Women During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Comparative Study Using Big Data Analysis
1Department of Sport & Leisure Studies, Shingyeong University, 18274 Hwaseong City, Republic of Korea
2Department of Physical Education, Graduate School, Sungshin Women’s University, 02844 Seoul, Republic of Korea
3Department of Sport & Leisure Studies, Sungshin Women’s University, 02844 Seoul, Republic of Korea
DOI: 10.31083/j.jomh1809181 Vol.18,Issue 9,September 2022 pp.1-11
Published: 22 September 2022
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has increased risks to people’s health due to restrictions on movement and access to exercise facilities. This study compares and analyzes perceptions and key attributes of exercise among Korean men and women in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic by using data collected from social media. Methods: Data were collected from January 2020 to June 2021. The search keywords were classified into “COVID-19, men, and exercise” and “COVID-19, women, and exercise”, and data were collected through Textom (The Imc Inc., Daegu, Republic of Korea), a big data collection and analysis platform. Frequency analysis, TF-IDF analysis, and degree centrality analysis were performed using Textom. In addition, a CONCOR (CONvergent and CORrelation) analysis was performed using UCINET 6 (Analytic Technologies Corp., Lexington, KY, USA) to visualize related words and analyze clusters. Results: In total, 10,703 data points of 5.935 MB were collected and analyzed. The top 50 words related to men’s and women’s exercises of COVID-19 were derived through frequency analysis, TF-IDF analysis, and degree centrality analysis. We also derived four common clusters (exercise method, COVID-19 situation, friends, and sports). In addition, three clusters (women’s fitness, children and hashtags) for men’s exercise and two clusters (weight loss and Olympics) for women’s exercise were derived separately. Conclusions: The study results show that it is possible to provide suggestions and health improvement plans for exercise based on gender. In addition, our findings can serve as an academic basis for developing health promotion programs related to exercise during the COVID-19 pandemic, which can contribute to reducing the economic costs and health risks associated with the pandemic.
COVID-19; men; women; exercise; Korea; social media
Sung-Un Park,Hye-Ri Song,Yoon-Kwon Yang. Perceptions and Key Attributes of Exercise Among Korean Men and Women During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Comparative Study Using Big Data Analysis. Journal of Men's Health. 2022. 18(9);1-11.
 Chang CL, McAleer M. Alternative global health security in-dexes for risk analysis of COVID-19. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17: 3161.
 Johns Hopkins University & Medicine. COVID-19 dashboard by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University (JHU). 2021. Available at: https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html (Accessed: 13 December 2021).
 United Nations. Statement on the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and economic, social and cultural rights. 2021. Available at: https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/3856957 (Ac-cessed: 1 December 2021).
 Lorente LML, Arrabal AA, Pulido-Montes C. The right to ed-ucation and ict during covid-19: an international perspective. Sustainability. 2020; 12: 9091.
 Lim S, Lim H, Després J. Collateral Damage of the COVID‐19 Pandemic on Nutritional Quality and Physical Activity: Per-spective from South Korea. Obesity. 2020; 28: 1788–1790.
 Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare. 2022. Available at: http://ncov.mohw.go.kr/tcmBoardView.do?brdId=3&brdGubun=31&dataGubun=&ncvContSeq=6393&contSeq=6393&bo ard_id=312&gubun=ALL (Accessed: 15 February 2022).
 Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare. 2021. Available at: http://ncov.mohw.go.kr/upload/140/202107/1625404288815_ 20210704221131.pdf (Accessed: 9 November 2021).
 Bassuk SS, Manson JE. Epidemiological evidence for the role of physical activity in reducing risk of type 2 diabetes and car-diovascular disease. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2005; 99: 1193–1204.
 Kohrt WM, Bloomfield SA, Little KD, Nelson ME, Yingling VR. American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand: phys-
ical activity and bone health. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2004; 36: 1985–1996.
 Hale JW, Pacheco JA, Lewis CS, Swimmer L, Daley SM, Nazir N, et al. Everyday discrimination for American Indian tribal col-lege students enrolled in the Internet All Nations Breath of Life program. Journal of American College Health. 2021. (in press)
 Sigal RJ, Kenny GP, Wasserman DH, Castaneda-Sceppa C, White RD. Physical activity/exercise and type 2 diabetes: a con-sensus statement from the American Diabetes Association. Dia-betes Care. 2006; 29: 1433–1438.
 Park SU, Lee CG, Kim DK, Park JH, Jang DJ. A developmen-tal model for predicting sport participation among female Ko-rean college students. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17: 5010.
 De Oliveira Neto L, Elsangedy HM, Tavares VDDO, Teixeira CVLS, Behm DG, Da Silva-Grigoletto ME. #TrainingInHome - Home-based training during COVID-19 (SARS-COV2) pan-demic: physical exercise and behavior-based approach. Revista Brasileira de Prescrição e Fisiologia do Exercício. 2020; 19: S9–S19.
 WHO. ‘Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health’, Geneva World Heal Organ. WHO Press: Geneva. 2010.
 Pepe MV, Gandee RF. Ohio senior Olympics: creating the new adult image. Physical activity, aging and sports: practice, pro-gram and policy. The center for the study of aging. 1992: 75–82.
 Stevenson CL. Seeking Identities: towards an understanding of the athletic careers of masters swimmers. International Review for the Sociology of Sport. 2002; 37: 131–146.
 Kim Y, Lee E. The association between elderly people’s seden-tary behaviors and their health-related quality of life: focusing on comparing the young-old and the old-old. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes. 2019; 17: 131.
 Chen P, Mao L, Nassis GP, Harmer P, Ainsworth BE, Li F. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): the need to maintain regu-lar physical activity while taking precautions. Journal of Sport and Health Science. 2020; 9: 103–104.
 Halabchi F, Ahmadinejad Z, Selk-Ghaffari M. COVID-19 epi-demic: exercise or not to exercise; that is the question! Asian Journal of Sports Medicine. 2020; 11: e102630.
 Cortez ACL, Pitanga FJG, Almeida-Santos MA, Nunes RAM, Botero-Rosas DA, Dantas EHM. Centers of physical activities and health promotion during the COVID-19 pandemic. Revista da Associacao Medica Brasileira. 2020; 66: 1328–1334.
 Nyenhuis SM, Greiwe J, Zeiger JS, Nanda A, Cooke A. Exercise and Fitness in the Age of Social Distancing during the COVID-19 Pandemic. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: in Practice. 2020; 8: 2152–2155.
 University of Virginia Health System. COVID-19: exer-cise may help prevent deadly complication. 2020. Available at: https://newsroom.uvahealth.com/2020/04/15/covid-19-exercise-may-help-prevent-deadly-complication/ (Accessed: 9 August 2021).
 Ammar A, Trabelsi K, Brach M, Chtourou H, Boukhris O, Mas-moudi L, et al. Effects of home confinement on mental health and lifestyle behaviours during the COVID-19 outbreak: insight from the “ECLB-COVID19” multi countries survey. MedRxiv. 2020. (in press)
 Castañeda-Babarro A, Arbillaga-Etxarri A, Gutiérrez-Santamaría B, Coca A. Physical Activity Change during COVID-19 Confinement. International Journal of Environmen-tal Research and Public Health. 2020; 17: 6878.
 Craft BB, Carroll HA, Lustyk MKB. Gender differences in exer-cise habits and quality of life reports: assessing the moderating effects of reasons for exercise. International Journal of Liberal Arts and Social Science. 2014; 2: 65–76.
 Nambiar R, Bhardwaj R, Sethi A, Vargheese R. A look at chal-lenges and opportunities of Big Data analytics in healthcare. 2013 IEEE International Conference on Big Data. 2013; 17–22.
 Carter P. Big data analytics: future architectures, skills and roadmaps for the CIO: September. White pa-per, IDC sponsored by SAS. 2011: 1–16.
 Manyika J, Chui M, Brown B, Bughin J, Dobbs R, Roxburgh C, et al. Big Data: the next frontier for innovation, competition, and productivity. McKinsey Global Institute: Seattle. 2011.
 Xing EP, Ho Q, Dai W, Kim JK, Wei J, Lee S, et al. Petuum: a New Platform for Distributed Machine Learning on Big Data. IEEE Transactions on Big Data. 2015; 1: 49–67.
 Sahay S. Big data and public health: challenges and opportuni-ties for low and middle income countries. Communications of the Association for Information Systems. 2016; 39: 419–438.
 Park TH, Kim WI, Park S, Ahn J, Cho MK, Kim S. Public in-terest in acne on the internet: comparison of search information from Google trends and Naver. Journal of Medical Internet Re-search. 2020; 22: e19427.
 Kao A, Poteet SR, (eds.) Natural language processing and text mining. Springer science & business media. Springer: London. 2007.
 Iyengar S. Is anyone responsible? How television frames polit-ical issues. University of Chicago Press: Illinois. 1994.
 Rapp A, Beitelspacher LS, Grewal D, Hughes DE. Understand-ing social media effects across seller, retailer, and consumer in-teractions. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. 2013; 41: 547–566.
 Ganu G, Kakodkar Y, Marian A. Improving the quality of pre-dictions using textual information in online user reviews. Infor-mation Systems. 2013; 38: 1–15.
 Feldman R, Sanger J. The text mining handbook: advanced ap-proaches in analyzing unstructured data. Cambridge University Press: United Kingdom. 2007.
 Aggarwal CC, Zhai C, editors. Mining text data. Springer sci-ence & business media. Springer: Boston. 2012.
 Aggarwal CC. Machine learning for text. Springer: Switzerland. 2018.
 Sinoara RA, Camacho-Collados J, Rossi RG, Navigli R, Rezende SO. Knowledge-enhanced document embeddings for text classification. Knowledge-Based Systems. 2019; 163: 955–971.
 Voss KE, Spangenberg ER, Grohmann B. Measuring the Hedo-nic and Utilitarian Dimensions of Consumer Attitude. Journal of Marketing Research. 2003; 40: 310–320.
 Park SU, Ahn H, Kim DK, So WY. Big Data analysis of sports and physical activities among Korean adolescents. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17: 5577.
 Zhang Y, Gong L, Wang Y. An improved TF-IDF approach for text classification. Journal of Zhejiang University Science. 2005; 6A: 49–55.
 Otte E, Rousseau R. Social network analysis: a powerful strat-egy, also for the information sciences. Journal of Information Science. 2002; 28: 441–453.
 Scott N, Baggio R, Cooper C. Network analysis and tourism from theory to practice. Cromwell Press: United Kingdom. 2008.
 Wasserman S, Faust K. Social network analysis: Methods and applications. Cambride University Press: Cambridge, United Kingdom. 1994.
 Ban HJ, Choi H, Choi EK, Lee S, Kim H. Investigating key at-tributes in experience and satisfaction of hotel customer using online review data. Sustainability. 2019; 11: 6570.
 Shephard RJ, Lankenau B, Pratt M, Neiman A, Puska P, Benaz-iza H, et al. Physical Activity Policy Development: a synopsis of the who/CDC Consultation, September 29 through October 2, 2002, Atlanta, Georgia. Public Health Reports. 2004; 119: 346–351.
 Pate RR, Pratt M, Blair SN, Haskell WL, Macera CA, Bouchard C, et al. Physical activity and public health. a recommendation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1995; 273: 402–407.
 National Center for Health Statistics. Healthy people 2000 re-view 1997. 1997. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hp2000/hp2k97.pdf (Accessed: 23 December 2021).
 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Physical activity and health: A report the surgeon general. 1999. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/sgr/index.htm (Accessed: 1 De-cember 1 2021).
 US Department of Health and Human Services Public Health Service. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Healthy people. 2010. Available at: http://www.healthypeople.gov/2010/ (Accessed: 1 December 2021).
 Donnelly JE, Honas JJ, Smith BK, Mayo MS, Gibson CA, Sul-livan DK, et al. Aerobic exercise alone results in clinically sig-nificant weight loss for men and women: midwest exercise trial 2. Obesity. 2013; 21: E219–E228.
 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. How COVID-19 spreads. 2021. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/how-covid-spreads.html (Ac-cessed: 1 December 2021).
 Remick RA. A walk in nature: The superfood of physical activ-ities. British Columbia Medical Journal. 2021; 63: 74.
 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Improv-ing ventilation in your Home. 2021. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/Improving-Ventilation-Home.html (Accessed: 1 December 2021).
 Tiggemann M, Martins Y, Churchett L. Beyond Muscles: unex-plored parts of men’s body image. Journal of Health Psychology. 2008; 13: 1163–1172.
 Rodin J, Silberstein L, Striegel-Moore R. Women and weight: a normative discontent. In: Sondregger TB, (ed.) Psychology and gender (pp. 267–307). University of Nebraska Press: Nebraska. 1985.
 Thompson JK, Heinberg LJ, Altabe M, Tantleff-Dunn S. Exact-ing beauty: Theory, assessment, and treatment of body image disturbance. American Psychological Association: Washington. 1999.
 Moreno JA, Moreno R, Cervelló E. Relación del autoconcepto físico con las conductas de consumo de alcohol y tabaco en ado-lescentes. Adicciones. 2009; 21: 147–154.
 Estévez M, Muros JJ, Torres B, Pradas F, Zurita F, Cepero M. Influencia de la composición corporal y la aceptación por las clases de educación física sobre la autoestima de niños de 14-16 años de Alicante, España. Nutricion Hospitalaria. 2015; 31: 1519–1524.
 Franco E, Coterón J, Gómez V, Laura de Franza A. Relación entre motivación, actividad física realizada en el tiempo libre y la intención futura de práctica de actividad física. Estudio com-parativo entre adolescentes argentinos y españoles. SPORT TK-Revista EuroAmericana de Ciencias del Deporte. 2017; 6: 25–34.
 Sáez I, Solabarrieta J, Rubio I. Physical Self-Concept, Gender, and Physical Condition of Bizkaia University Students. Inter-national Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17: 5152.
 Amagasa S, Inoue S, Ukawa S, Sasaki S, Nakamura K, Yoshimura A, et al. Are Japanese Women less Physically Ac-tive than Men? Findings from the DOSANCO Health Study. Journal of Epidemiology. 2021; 31: 530–536.
 Silberstein LR, Striegel-Moore RH, Timko C, Rodin J. Behav-ioral and psychological implications of body dissatisfaction: do men and women differ? Sex Roles. 1988; 19: 219–232.
 Tiggemann M, Williamson S. The effect of exercise on body sat-isfaction and self-esteem as a function of gender and age. Sex Roles. 2000; 43: 119–127.
 Strelan P, Hargreaves D. Reasons for Exercise and Body Esteem: Men’s Responses to Self-Objectification. Sex Roles. 2005; 53: 495–503.
 Federighi Baisi Chagas E, Biteli P, Moreira Candeloro B, An-gelo Rodrigues M, Henrique Rodrigues P. Physical exercise and COVID-19: a summary of the recommendations. AIMS Bio-engineering. 2020; 7: 236–241.
 Bernardi E, Pomidori L, Cassutti F, Cogo A. Home-Based, Moderate-Intensity Exercise Training Using a Metronome Im-proves the Breathing Pattern and Oxygen Saturation during Ex-ercise in Patients with COPD. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Re-habilitation and Prevention. 2018; 38: E16–E18.
 Burnham JM. Exercise is medicine: health benefits of regular physical activity. The Journal of the Louisiana State Medical So-ciety. 1998; 150: 319–323.
 Qian M, Jiang J. COVID-19 and social distancing. Journal of Public Health. 2020; 30: 259–261.
 Venkatesh A, Edirappuli S. Social distancing in covid-19: what are the mental health implications? British Medical Journal. 2020; 369: m1379.
 Small TA. What the HASHTAG? : A content analysis of Cana-dian politics on Twitter. Information, Communication & Soci-ety. 2011; 14: 872–895.
 Hu Y, Manikonda L, Kambhampati S. What we Instagram: a first analysis of Instagram photo content and user type (pp. 21–24). 8th International Conference on Weblogs and Social Media: Michigan. 2014.
Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch) Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,200 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.
Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition aims to evaluate a journal’s value from multiple perspectives including the journal impact factor, descriptive data about a journal’s open access content as well as contributing authors, and provide readers a transparent and publisher-neutral data & statistics information about the journal.
Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) DOAJ is a unique and extensive index of diverse open access journals from around the world, driven by a growing community, committed to ensuring quality content is freely available online for everyone.
SCImago The SCImago Journal & Country Rank is a publicly available portal that includes the journals and country scientific indicators developed from the information contained in the Scopus® database (Elsevier B.V.)
Publication Forum - JUFO (Federation of Finnish Learned Societies) Publication Forum is a classification of publication channels created by the Finnish scientific community to support the quality assessment of academic research.
Scopus CiteScore 0.7 (2021) Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.
Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers Search for publication channels (journals, series and publishers) in the Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers to see if they are considered as scientific. (https://kanalregister.hkdir.no/publiseringskanaler/Forside).