Article Data

  • Views 260
  • Dowloads 121


Open Access Special Issue

The Biomechanics of Ice Hockey: Health and Performance Using Wearable Technology

  • Stuart A Evans1,*,

1College of Health and Human Sciences, Charles Darwin University (CDU), 0810 Casuarina, NT, Australia

DOI: 10.31083/j.jomh1809193 Vol.18,Issue 9,September 2022 pp.1-12

Published: 22 September 2022

(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Biomechanics for Health and Performance)

*Corresponding Author(s): Stuart A Evans E-mail:


Background: Ice hockey is a dynamic and challenging sport that encompasses forward and backward skating, speed, agility, mobility and coordination. The physical and biomechanical demands on players mean that injuries occur due to collusions and impacts. Whilst player performance remains important for success, the likelihood of game-related injuries is vast. Contemporary wearable technology allows precise measurements of kinematic and kinetic characteristics that can help performance and mitigate injury. Therefore, there has been increasing interest amongst players, coaches, sports scientists, health officials and the sports engineering community to enhance understanding. Methods: This scoping review searched three electronic bibliographic databases (Pubmed, GoogleScholar and Scopus) using a structured search strategy to identify articles published between 2000 and 2022. The reference lists of selected papers (not found in the original search) were also examined for relevance. Thus, a review of epidemiological, biomechanical and technological studies are presented. Results: An ability to link performance with athlete health and wellbeing using wearable technology is not clear. It is apparent that for the majority of data metrics, legitimacy, usage and dependability are multifactorial, in that it is reliant upon a variety of factors including wearable technology brand and model. Reasons exist to support the usage of wearables to track performance and manage athlete health and wellbeing, although the benefit accrued from devising a consistent approach depends on the nature of the how the technology is applied. Conclusions: Specific biomechanical assessments should be created using wearable technology given that player position and role requirements may have different injury considerations.


ice hockey; biomechanics; sensors; wearables; injury

Cite and Share

Stuart A Evans. The Biomechanics of Ice Hockey: Health and Performance Using Wearable Technology. Journal of Men's Health. 2022. 18(9);1-12.


[1] International Ice Hockey Federation. IIHF Guide and Record Book: Where countries come to play. 10th edn. IHHF: Zurich, Switzerland. 2020.

[2] Buckeridge E, LeVangie MC, Stetter B, Nigg SR, Nigg BM. An on-ice measurement approach to analyse the biomechanics of ice hockey skating. PLoS ONE. 2015; 10: e0127324.

[3] Lara OD, Labrador MA. A Survey on Human Activity Recog-nition using Wearable Sensors. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials. 2013; 15: 1192–1209.

[4] Bracko MR. On-Ice Performance Characteristics of Elite and Non-elite Womenʼs Ice Hockey Players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2001; 15: 42–47.

[5] Upjohn T, Turcotte R, Pearsall DJ, Loh J. Three-dimensional kinematics of the lower limbs during forward ice hockey skat-ing. Sports Biomechanics. 2008; 7: 206–221.

[6] Hawkins D, Metheny J. Overuse injuries in youth sports: biome-chanical considerations. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exer-cise. 2001; 33: 1701–1707.

[7] Lafontaine D. Three-dimensional kinematics of the knee and an-kle joints for three consecutive push-offs during ice hockey skat-ing starts. Sports Biomechanics. 2007; 6: 391–406.

[8] Stidwill TJ, Pearsall D, Turcotte R. Comparison of skating ki-netics and kinematics on ice and on a synthetic surface. Sports Biomechanics. 2010; 9: 57–64.

[9] Hardegger M, Ledergerber B, Mutter S, Vogt C, Seiter J, Ca-latroni A, et al. Sensor technology for ice hockey and skat-ing. IEEE 12th International Conference on Wearable and Im-plantable Body Sensor Networks. Boston, MA, United States of America, June 9. In Proceedings. IEEE. 2015.

[10] Lee J, Wheeler K, James D. Wearable Sensors in Sport: A prac-tical guide to usage and implementation. 1st edn. Springer: Sin-gapore. 2018.

[11] Teixeira JE, Forte P, Ferraz R, Leal M, Ribeiro J, Silva AJ, et al. Monitoring accumulated training and match load in football: A systematic review. International Journal of Environmental Re-search and Public Health. 2021; 18: 3906.

[12] Carlsson B, Backman J, Stark T. Introduction: the progress of elite ice hockey beyond the NHL. Sport in Society. 2020; 23: 355–360.

[13] Pearsall D, Turcotte R, Murphy S. Biomechanics of ice hockey. Exercise and Sport Science. In Garrett WE, Kirkendall D (eds.) Exercise and Sport Science. 1st edn. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: Philadelphia. 2000.

[14] Moghaddam H, Kwok W. Role of Helmet Fit on Angular and Linear Accelerations of Head in Ice Hockey. International Jour-nal of Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2019; 7: 26–32.

[15] Popkin CA, Nelson BJ, Park CN, Brooks SE, Lynch TS, Levine WN, Ahmad CS. Head, neck, and shoulder injuries in ice hockey: current concepts. American Journal in Orthopedics. 2017; 46: 123–134.

[16] O’Connor KL, Rowson S, Duma SM, Broglio SP. Head-Impact–Measurement Devices: a Systematic Review. Journal of Athletic Training. 2017; 52: 206–227.

[17] Tuominen M, Stuart MJ, Aubry M, Kannus P, Parkkari J. In-juries in men’s international ice hockey: a 7-year study of the International Ice Hockey Federation Adult World Championship Tournaments and Olympic Winter Games. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2015; 49: 30–36.

[18] Post A, Oeur A, Hoshizaki TB, Gilchrist MD. Examination of the relationship of peak linear and angular acceleration to brain deformation metrics in hockey helmet impacts. Computer Meth-ods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering, 2011; 16: 511–519.

[19] Lafontaine D, Lamontagne M. 3-D Kinematics Using Moving Cameras. Part 1: Development and Validation of the Mobile Data Acquisition System. Journal of Applied Biomechanics. 2003; 19: 4.

[20] Turcotte RA, Pearsall DJ, Montgomery DL. An apparatus to measure stiffness properties of ice hockey skate boots. Sports Engineering. 2001; 4: 43–48.

[21] Bracko MR, Fellingham GW, Hall LT, Fisher AG, Cryer W. Per-formance skating characteristics of professional ice hockey for-wards. Sports Medicine, Training and Rehabilitation. 1998; 8: 251–263.

[22] Manners TW. Sport-Specific Training for Ice Hockey. Strength and Conditioning Journal. 2004; 26: 16–21.

[23] Nobes KJ, Montgomery DL, Pearsall DJ, Turcotte RA, Lefebvre R, Whittom F. A Comparison of Skating Economy on-Ice and on the Skating Treadmill. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology. 2003; 28: 1–11.

[24] Chau EG, Sim FH, Stauffer RN, Johannson KG. Mechanics of ice hockey injuries. In Bleustein JL (ed.) American Society of Mechanical Engineers: Mechanics and Sport. 1973.

[25] Hay JG. In The biomechanics of sports techniques. 4th edn. Prentice-Hall: Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 1993.

[26] Montgomery DL, Nobes K, Pearsall DJ, Turcotte RA. Task analysis (hitting, shooting, passing and skating) of professional hockey players. ASTM Special Technical Publication. 2004.

[27] van Ingen Schenau GJ, de Boer RW, De Groot G. Biomechan-ics of speed skating. In Vaughan CL (ed.) The Biomechanics of Sport. CRC Press Inc.: Boca Raton, FL. 1988.

[28] Haché, A. The Physics of Hockey. Johns Hopkins University Press: USA. 2002.

[29] Marino GW. Kinematics of Ice Skating at Different Velocities. Research Quarterly. American Alliance for Health, Physical Ed-ucation and Recreation. 1977; 48: 93–97.

[30] Page P. Biomechanics of forward skating in ice hockey [master’s thesis]. Dalhousie University. 1975.

[31] McCaw ST, Hoshizaki TB. A kinematic comparison of novice, intermediate, and elite ice skaters. In Jonsson M (ed.) Biome-chanics. Human Kinetics: Champaign. 1987.

[32] Robbins SM, Renaud PJ, MacInnis N, Pearsall DJ. The relation-ship between trunk rotation and shot speed when performing ice hockey wrist shots. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2021; 39: 1001–1009.

[33] Novak D, Tomasek A, Lipinska P, Stastny P. The specificity of motor learning tasks determines the kind of skating skill devel-opment in older school-age children. Sports. 2020; 8: 126.

[34] Logan SW, Robinson LE, Wilson AE, Lucas WA. Getting the fundamentals of movement: a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of motor skill interventions in children. Child: Care, Health and Development. 2012; 38: 305–315.

[35] Wu T, Pearsall D, Hodges A, Turcotte R, Lefebvre R, Mont-gomery D, et al. The performance of the ice hockey slap and wrist shots: the effects of stick construction and player skill. Sports Engineering. 2003; 6: 31–39.

[36] Kays B, Smith L. Field Measurements of Ice Hockey Stick Per-formance and Player Motion. Procedia Engineering. 2014; 72: 563–568.

[37] Michaud-Paquette Y, Pearsall DJ, Turcotte RA. Predictors of scoring accuracy: ice hockey wrist shot mechanics. Sports En-gineering. 2008; 11: 75–84.

[38] Jakobsen A. The relationship between motivation, perceived motivational climate, task and ego and physical activity. Baltic Journal of Health and Physical Activity. 2021; 13: 79–91.

[39] Bežák J, Přidal V. Upper body strength and power are associated with shot speed in men’s ice hockey. Acta Gymnica. 2017; 47: 78–83.

[40] Broadbent S. Skateology. The science and technology of the edge/ice interface. USOC/SETC Conference: Colorado Springs, CO. December 8–9, 1989.

[41] Pearsall D. Turcotte R, Lefebvre R, Bateni H, Nicolaou M. Kine-matics of the foot and ankle in forward ice hockey skating. XIX International Symposium On Biomechanics In Sports, ISBS. San Francisco, United States of America. March 3. In Proceed-ings ISBS. 2001.

[42] Gandevia SC. Spinal and Supraspinal Factors in Human Muscle Fatigue. Physiological Reviews. 2001; 81: 1725–1789.

[43] Turpin NA, Watier B. Cycling biomechanics and its relationship to performance. Applied Science. 2020; 10: 4112.

[44] Benson B, Meeuwisse W. Ice Hockey Injuries. Medicine and Sports Science. 2005; 49: 86–119.

[45] Biasca N. The avoidability of head and neck injuries in ice hockey: an historical review. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2002; 36: 410–427.

[46] Daneshvar DH, Baugh CM, Nowinski CJ, McKee AC, Stern RA, Cantu RC. Helmets and Mouth Guards: the Role of Personal Equipment in Preventing Sport-Related Concussions. Clinics in Sports Medicine. 2011; 30: 145–163.

[47] Clark M, Guskiewicz K. Sport-Related Traumatic Brain Injury. In Laskowitz D, Grant G (eds.) Translational Research in Trau-matic Brain Injury. CRC Press/Taylor and Francis Group: Boca Raton (FL). 2016.

[48] Kontos AP, Elbin RJ, Sufrinko A, Dakan S, Bookwalter K, Price A, et al. Incidence of Concussion in Youth Ice Hockey Players. Pediatrics. 2016; 137: e20151633.

[49] Pfister T, Pfister K, Hagel B, Ghali WA, Ronksley PE. The inci-dence of concussion in youth sports: a systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2016; 50: 292–297.

[50] Pilotti-Riley A, Stojanov D, Sohaib Arif M, McGregor SJ. Video corroboration of player incurred impacts using trunk worn sen-sors among national ice-hockey team members. PLoS ONE. 2019; 14: e0218235.

[51] Banerjee R, Palumbo MA, Fadale PD. Catastrophic Cervical Spine Injuries in the Collision Sport Athlete, Part 1. The Amer-ican Journal of Sports Medicine. 2004; 32: 1077–1087.

[52] Tator CH, Provvidenza C, Cassidy JD. Update and Overview of Spinal Injuries in Canadian Ice Hockey, 1943 to 2011. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 2016; 26: 232–238.

[53] Hostetler S, Xuang H, Smith G. Characteristics of ice hockey injuries treated in US emergency departments 2001–2002. Pedi-atrics. 2004; 114: 6.

[54] Moslener MD, Wadsworth LT. Ice Hockey. Current Sports Medicine Reports. 2010; 9: 134–138.

[55] Donaldson LD. Spondylolysis in Elite Junior-Level Ice Hockey Players. Sports Health: a Multidisciplinary Approach. 2014; 6: 356–359.

[56] Grant JA, Bedi A, Kurz J, Bancroft R, Miller BS. Incidence and Injury Characteristics of Medial Collateral Ligament Injuries in Male Collegiate Ice Hockey Players. Sports Health: a Multidis-ciplinary Approach. 2013; 5: 270–272.

[57] LaPrade RF, Surowiec RK, Sochanska AN, Hentkowski BS, Martin BM, Engebretsen L, et al. Epidemiology, identification, treatment and return to play of musculoskeletal-based ice hockey injuries. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2014; 48: 4–10.

Abstracted / indexed in

Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch) Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,200 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.

Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition aims to evaluate a journal’s value from multiple perspectives including the journal impact factor, descriptive data about a journal’s open access content as well as contributing authors, and provide readers a transparent and publisher-neutral data & statistics information about the journal.

Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) DOAJ is a unique and extensive index of diverse open access journals from around the world, driven by a growing community, committed to ensuring quality content is freely available online for everyone.

SCImago The SCImago Journal & Country Rank is a publicly available portal that includes the journals and country scientific indicators developed from the information contained in the Scopus® database (Elsevier B.V.)

Publication Forum - JUFO (Federation of Finnish Learned Societies) Publication Forum is a classification of publication channels created by the Finnish scientific community to support the quality assessment of academic research.

Scopus CiteScore 0.7 (2021) Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.

Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers Search for publication channels (journals, series and publishers) in the Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers to see if they are considered as scientific. (

Submission Turnaround Time