Impact of Somatic Conditions and Lifestyle Behaviours on Depressive Symptoms and Low Life Satisfaction among Middle-Aged and Older Adult Men in South Africa
1Department of Psychology, University of the Free State, 9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa
2Department of Psychology, College of Medical and Health Sciences, Asia University, Wufeng, 41354 Taichung, Taiwan
3Department of Health Education and Behavioral Sciences, Faculty of Public Health Mahidol University, 10400 Bangkok, Thailand
4Department of Research Administration and Development, University of Limpopo, 0727 Polokwane, South Africa
DOI: 10.31083/j.jomh1809194 Vol.18,Issue 9,September 2022 pp.1-11
Published: 22 September 2022
Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the association between somatic disorders, lifestyle factors, incident and persistent depressive symptoms, and low life satisfaction in a longitudinal study in South Africa. Methods: We analyzed longitudinal data from two consecutive waves, 2346 men aged 40 years or older in 2014/2015 in wave 1 and 1864 men of wave 1 in 2018/2019 in wave 2 of the “Health and Ageing in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and their Health (INDEPTH) Community in South Africa (HAALSI)”. Results: In total, 360 of 1932 male participants without depressive symptoms in wave 1 (24.3%) had incident depressive symptoms in wave 2 and 77 of 349 men had depressive symptoms in both waves 1 and 2 (persistent depressive symptoms). In all, 457 of 1258 male participants without low life satisfaction in Wave 1 (47.6%) had incident low life satisfaction in Wave 2, and 360 of 998 men had low life satisfaction at both Wave 1 and 2 (persistent low life satisfaction). In the unadjusted logistic regression analysis, having kidney disease and living with HIV had greater odds of incident depressive symptoms. In adjusted analysis, alcohol dependence (Adjusted Odds Ratio-AOR: 4.54, 95% Confidence Interval-CI: 1.05–19.66) was positively correlated and 1–7 and 8–11 years of education (AOR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.27–0.74, and AOR: 0.20, 95% CI: 0.07–0.54, respectively) were negatively associated with persistent depressive symptoms. Increasing age increased the odds (AOR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01–1.04), while higher education (
chronic diseases; incident depression; persistent depression; low life satisfaction; longitudinal study; South Africa
Karl Peltzer,Supa Pengpid. Impact of Somatic Conditions and Lifestyle Behaviours on Depressive Symptoms and Low Life Satisfaction among Middle-Aged and Older Adult Men in South Africa. Journal of Men's Health. 2022. 18(9);1-11.
 National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health. Global health and ageing. NIH Publication no. 11-7737. 2011. Available at: https://www.who.int/ageing/publications/global_health.pdf (Accessed: 5 December 2021).
 Kessler RC, Birnbaum HG, Shahly V, Bromet E, Hwang I, McLaughlin KA, et al. Age differences in the prevalence and co-morbidity of DSM-IV major depressive episodes: results from the who World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Depression and Anxiety. 2010; 27: 351–364.
 World Health Organization. Global status report on noncommu-nicable diseases 2014. Geneva: WHO Press. 2014.
 Ruiz-Estigarribia L, Martínez-González M Díaz-Gutiérrez J, Sánchez-Villegas A, Lahortiga-Ramos F, Bes-Rastrollo M. Lifestyles and the risk of depression in the “Seguimiento Uni-versidad de Navarra” cohort. European Psychiatry. 2019; 61: 33–40.
 Velten J, Lavallee KL, Scholten S, Meyer AH, Zhang X, Schnei-der S, et al. Lifestyle choices and mental health: a representative population survey. BMC Psychology. 2014; 2: 58.
 Lund C, Myer L, Stein DJ, Williams DR, Flisher AJ. Mental illness and lost income among adult South Africans. Social Psy-chiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. 2013; 48: 845–851.
 Wen Y, Liu C, Liao J, Yin Y, Wu D. Incidence and risk fac-tors of depressive symptoms in 4 years of follow-up among mid-aged and elderly community-dwelling Chinese adults: findings from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. BMJ Open. 2019; 9: e029529.
 Chireh B, D’Arcy C. Shared and unique risk factors for depres-sion and diabetes mellitus in a longitudinal study, implications for prevention: an analysis of a longitudinal population sample aged ≥45 years. Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2019; 10: 2042018819865828.
 Yang Y, Wang Y, Chiu H, Wu C, Handa Y, Liao Y, et al. Func-tional limitations and somatic diseases are independent predic-tors for incident depressive disorders in seniors: Findings from a nationwide longitudinal study. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics. 2015; 61: 371–377.
 Liu G, Xue Y, Liu Y, Wang S, Geng Q. Multimorbidity in cardio-vascular disease and association with life satisfaction: a Chinese national cross-sectional study. BMJ Open. 2020; 10: e042950.
 Schuch FB, Vancampfort D, Firth J, Rosenbaum S, Ward PB, Silva ES, et al. Physical Activity and Incident Depression: a Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2018; 175: 631–648.
 Dishman RK, McDowell CP, Herring MP. Customary physical activity and odds of depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 111 prospective cohort studies. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2021; 55: 926–934.
 Cabello M, Miret M, Caballero FF, Chatterji S, Naidoo N, Kowal P, et al. The role of unhealthy lifestyles in the incidence and persistence of depression: a longitudinal general popula-tion study in four emerging countries. Globalization and Health. 2017; 13: 18.
 van Gool CH, Kempen GIJM, Bosma H, van Boxtel MPJ, Jolles J, van Eijk JTM. Associations between lifestyle and depressed mood: longitudinal results from the Maastricht Aging Study. American Journal of Public Health. 2007; 97: 887–894.
 Matison AP, Mather KA, Flood VM, Reppermund S. Asso-ciations between nutrition and the incidence of depression in middle-aged and older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational population-based studies. Ageing Research Reviews. 2021; 70: 101403.
 Martín-María N, Caballero FF, Moreno-Agostino D, Olaya B, Haro JM, Ayuso-Mateos JL, et al. Relationship between subjec-tive well-being and healthy lifestyle behaviours in older adults: a longitudinal study. Aging & Mental Health. 2020; 24: 611–619.
 Kim ES, Kubzansky LD, Soo J, Boehm JK. Maintaining Healthy Behavior: A Prospective Study of Psychological well-being and Physical Activity. Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 2017; 51: 337–347.
 World Health Organization (WHO). Promoting mental health: concepts, emerging evidence, practice: summary report/a re-port from the World Health Organization, Department of Men-tal Health and Substance Abuse in collaboration with the Vic-torian Health Promotion Foundation (VicHealth) and the Uni-versity of Melbourne. 2004. Available at: https://www.who.int/mental_health/evidence/en/promoting_mhh.pdf (Accessed: 5 February 2022).
 Gómez-Olivé FX, Montana L, Wagner RG, Kabudula CW, Rohr JK, Kahn K, et al. Cohort Profile: Health and Ageing in Africa: a Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH Community in South Africa (HAALSI). International Journal of Epidemiology. 2018; 47: 689–690j.
 Radloff LS. The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement. 1977; 1: 385–401.
 Steffick DE. Documentation of Affective Functioning Measures in the Health and Retirement Study. Survey Research Center University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 2000. Available at: https://hrs.isr.umich.edu/publications/biblio/5411 (Accessed: 25 November 2021).
 Shisana O, Labadarios D, Rehle T, Simbayi L, Zuma K. South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (SANHANES-1). HSRC Press: South Africa. 2013.
 Ewing JA. Detecting alcoholism. The CAGE questionnaire. The Journal of the American Medical Association. 1984; 252: 1905–1907.
 Armstrong T, Bull F. Development of the World Health Organi-zation Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). Journal of Public Health. 2006; 14: 66–70.
 World Health Organization (WHO) Global Physical Activity Surveillance. 2009. Available at: http://www.who.int/chp/steps/GPAQ/en/index.html (Accessed: 2 October 2021).
 World Health Organization (WHO). Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic - report of a WHO consultation. World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland. 2000.
 American Psychiatric Association. HIV and clinical depression, 2012. Available at: file:///C:/Users/user/Downloads/FactSheet-Depression-2012.pdf (Accessed: 20 November 2021).
 Palmer S, Vecchio M, Craig JC, Tonelli M, Johnson DW, Nicolucci A, et al. Prevalence of depression in chronic kidney disease: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Kidney International. 2013; 84: 179–191.
 Hare DL, Toukhsati SR, Johansson P, Jaarsma T. Depression and cardiovascular disease: a clinical review. European Heart Journal. 2014; 35: 1365–1372.
 Bi Y, Pei J, Hao C, Yao W, Wang H. The relationship between chronic diseases and depression in middle-aged and older adults: a 4-year follow-up study from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2021; 289: 160–166.
Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch) Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,200 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.
Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition aims to evaluate a journal’s value from multiple perspectives including the journal impact factor, descriptive data about a journal’s open access content as well as contributing authors, and provide readers a transparent and publisher-neutral data & statistics information about the journal.
Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) DOAJ is a unique and extensive index of diverse open access journals from around the world, driven by a growing community, committed to ensuring quality content is freely available online for everyone.
SCImago The SCImago Journal & Country Rank is a publicly available portal that includes the journals and country scientific indicators developed from the information contained in the Scopus® database (Elsevier B.V.)
Publication Forum - JUFO (Federation of Finnish Learned Societies) Publication Forum is a classification of publication channels created by the Finnish scientific community to support the quality assessment of academic research.
Scopus CiteScore 0.7 (2021) Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.
Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers Search for publication channels (journals, series and publishers) in the Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers to see if they are considered as scientific. (https://kanalregister.hkdir.no/publiseringskanaler/Forside).