Article Data

  • Views 969
  • Dowloads 153

Original Research

Open Access Special Issue

Mental Health Impacts of Working from Home after COVID-19: Does Gender Matter?

  • Na Hao1
  • Xinyao Nie1
  • Tianyuan Luo2,*,
  • Zhuo Chen3,4

1Department of Commerce Economics, School of Economics, Beijing Technology and Business University, 100048 Beijing, China;School of Economics and Finance, Xi’an Jiaotong University, 710061 Xi’an, Shaanxi, China

2School of Economics, University of Nottingham Ningbo China, 315100 Ningbo, Zhejiang, China

3Department of Health Policy and Management, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA

DOI: 10.31083/j.jomh1810197 Vol.18,Issue 10,October 2022 pp.1-22

Published: 26 October 2022

(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers in Men's Health)

*Corresponding Author(s): Tianyuan Luo E-mail: luoterry@xjtu.edu.cn

Abstract

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to various social distancing practices such as mandatory working from home, which aim to reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2. The purpose of this study was to compare the mental health impacts between men and women being forced to work from home following a COVID-19 outbreak. Methods: This study analyzed data collected from two rounds of surveys conducted in four cities in China: Beijing, Chengdu, Changsha, and Wuhan. A total of 940 individual responses were analyzed in this study. Multiple linear regression and ordinal logistic models were used to analyze the relationship between being forced to work from home, demographic variables, work-related variables, COVID-19 variables, family ties variables, and mental health variables. Results: The analysis showed that being forced to work from home was associated with worse mental health in men, but not among women. Married men reported better mental health compared with unmarried men, while the association between marital status and mental health was the opposite in women. Mental health was worse among those in higher job positions for both men and women. In addition, being forced to work from home was also associated with worse mental health among young, high-income men, and highly educated women. Conclusions: The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic are far-reaching and amy persist for years. Furthermore, the number of workers who choose to work from home is expected to increase. The findings of this study can inform policy-making that will improve the mental health of employees working from home, with particular attention to men forced to work from home.

Keywords

COVID-19 pandemic; SARS-CoV-2; mental health; work from home; gender; survey

Cite and Share

Na Hao,Xinyao Nie,Tianyuan Luo,Zhuo Chen. Mental Health Impacts of Working from Home after COVID-19: Does Gender Matter?. Journal of Men's Health. 2022. 18(10);1-22.

References

[1] Cheikh Ismail L, Mohamad MN, Bataineh MF, Ajab A, Al-Marzouqi AM, Jarrar AH, et al. Impact of the Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19) Lockdown on Mental Health and Well-Being in the United Arab Emirates. Frontiers in Psychiatry. 2021; 12: 633230.

[2] Escudero-Castillo I, Mato-Diaz FJ, Rodriguez-Alvarez A. Fur-loughs, Teleworking and Other Work Situations during the COVID-19 Lockdown: Impact on Mental Well-Being. Inter-national Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18.

[3] Fiorenzato E, Zabberoni S, Costa A, Cona G. Cognitive and mental health changes and their vulnerability factors related to COVID-19 lockdown in Italy. PLoS ONE. 2021; 16: e0246204.

[4] [2020] No.9. Notice on the issuance of the recent work plan for the prevention and control of pneumonia from novel coronavirus infections. Pneumonia Mechanisms: National Health Commis-sion Website. 2020.

[5] Skyconnect N. The proportion of home office has increased from 28% before the outbreak to 71%. 2020. Available at: https://m.so hu.com/a/412542294_100161396 (Accessed: 11 August 2020).

[6] Megan B. U.S. Workers Discovering Affinity for Remote Work. 2020. Available at: https://news.gallup.com/poll/306695/work ers-discovering-affinity-remote-work.aspx (Accessed: 3 April 2020).

[7] Allen TD, Golden TD, Shockley KM. How effective is telecom-muting? Assessing the status of our scientific findings. Psycho-logical Science in the Public Interest. 2015; 16: 40–68.

[8] Gajendran RS, Harrison DA. The good, the bad, and the un-known about telecommuting: Meta-analysis of psychological mediators and individual consequences. Journal of Applied Psy-chology. 2007; 92: 1524–1541.

[9] Chong S, Huang Y, Chang CD. Supporting interdependent tele-work employees: A moderated-mediation model linking daily COVID-19 task setbacks to next-day work withdrawal. Journal of Applied Psychology. 2020; 105: 1408–1422.

[10] Savolainen I, Oksa R, Savela N, Celuch M, Oksanen A. COVID-19 Anxiety-A Longitudinal Survey Study of Psychological and Situational Risks among Finnish Workers. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18: 794.

[11] Álamo C, Antúnez Z, Baader T, Kendall J, Barrientos M, de la Barra D. The sustained increase of mental health symptoms in Chilean university students over three years. Revista Lati-noamericana De Psicología. 2020; 52: 71–80.

[12] Gitay MN, Fatima S, Arshad S, Arshad B, Ehtesham A, Baig MA, et al. Gender Differences and Prevalence of Mental Health Problems in Students of Healthcare Units. Community Mental Health Journal. 2019; 55: 849–853.

[13] Kumar P, Rathee S. Mental Health Issue and Dissociative Symp-toms amongUndergraduate Medical Students: Across the Gen-der. Journal of Psychosocial Research. 2021; 16: 67–74.

[14] Astroza S, Tirachini A, Hurtubia R, Carrasco JA, Guevara A, Munizaga M, et al. Mobility Changes, Teleworking, and Remote Communication during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Chile. Find-ings. 2020.

[15] Alon T, Doepke M, Olmstead-Rumsey J, Tertilt M. The impact of COVID-19 on gender equality (No. w26947). National Bu-reau of Economic Research. 2020.

[16] Nguyen MH, Armoogum J. Perception and Preference for Home-Based Telework in the COVID-19 Era: A Gender-Based Analysis in Hanoi, Vietnam. Sustainability. 2021; 13: 3179.

[17] Carli LL. Women, Gender equality and COVID-19. Gender in Management: An International Journal. 2020; 35: 647–655.

[18] Shockley KM, Clark MA, Dodd H, King EB. Work-family strategies during COVID-19: Examining gender dynamics among dual-earner couples with young children. Journal of Applied Psychology. 2021; 106: 15–28.

[19] Nguyen MH. Factors influencing home-based telework in Hanoi (Vietnam) during and after the COVID-19 era. Transportation. 2021; 48: 3207–3238.

[20] Zamarro G, Prados MJ. Gender differences in couples’ division of childcare, work and mental health during COVID-19. Review of Economics of the Household. 2021; 19: 11–40.

[21] Faragher EB, Cass M, Cooper CL. The Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Health: a Meta-Analysis. Occupational & Environmental Medicine. 2013; 62: 105–112.

[22] Dongarwar D, Yusuf KK, Maiyegun SO, Ibrahimi S, Ikedionwu C, Salihu HM. Covid-19 and Neuro-Behavioral Economics: A Conceptual Framework to Improve Physical and Mental Health among Remote Workers. International Journal of Maternal and Child Health (MCH) and AIDS (IJMA). 2020; 9: 360–363.

[23] Okubo T, Inoue A, Sekijima K. Teleworker Performance in the COVID-19 Era in  Japan. Asian Economic Papers. 2021; 20: 175–192.

[24] Gualano MR, Lo Moro G, Voglino G, Bert F, Siliquini R. Ef-fects of Covid-19 Lockdown on Mental Health and Sleep Distur-bances in Italy. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17: 4779.

[25] Lei L, Huang X, Zhang S, Yang J, Yang L, Xu M. Comparison of Prevalence and Associated Factors of Anxiety and Depression Among People Affected by versus People Unaffected by Quar-antine During the COVID-19 Epidemic in Southwestern China. Medical Science Monitor. 2020; 26: e924609.

[26] Bartoszek A, Walkowiak D, Bartoszek A, Kardas G. Mental Well-Being (Depression, Loneliness, Insomnia, Daily Life Fa-tigue) during COVID-19 Related Home-Confinement-A Study from Poland. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17: 7417.

[27] Killgore WDS, Cloonan SA, Taylor EC, Dailey NS. Mental Health During the First Weeks of the COVID-19 Pandemic in the United States. Frontiers in Psychiatry. 2021; 12: 561898.

[28] Wang C, Pan R, Wan X, Tan Y, Xu L, Ho CS, et al. Imme-diate Psychological Responses and Associated Factors during the Initial Stage of the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Epidemic among the General Population in China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17: 1729.

[29] Mazza C, Ricci E, Biondi S, Colasanti M, Ferracuti S, Napoli C, et al. A Nationwide Survey of Psychological Distress among Italian People during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Immediate Psychological Responses and Associated Factors. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17: 3165.

[30] Hao N, Wang HH, Zhou Q. The impact of online grocery shop-ping on stockpile behavior in Covid-19. China Agricultural Eco-nomic Review. 2020; 12: 459–470.

[31] Wang HH, Hao N. Panic buying? Food hoarding during the pan-demic period with city lockdown. Journal of Integrative Agricul-ture. 2020; 19: 2916–2925.

[32] Rehman U, Shahnawaz MG, Khan NH, Kharshiing KD, Khur-sheed M, Gupta K, et al. Depression, Anxiety and Stress among Indians in Times of Covid-19 Lockdown. Community Mental Health Journal. 2021; 57: 42–48.

[33] Spitzer RL KK, Williams JB. Validation and Utility of a Self-Report Version of PRIME-MD: The PHQ Primary Care Study. Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders. Patient Health Questionnaire. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1999; 282: 1737–1744.

[34] Bottesi G, Ghisi M, Altoè G, Conforti E, Melli G, Sica C. The Italian version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21: Fac-tor structure and psychometric properties on community and clinical samples. Comprehensive Psychiatry. 2015; 60: 170–181.

[35] Wang J, Jing R, Lai X, Zhang H, Lyu Y, Knoll MD, et al. Ac-ceptance of COVID-19 Vaccination during the COVID-19 Pan-demic in China. Vaccines. 2020; 8: 482.

[36] Government BMPs. Notice of the People’s Government of Beijing Municipality on Flexible Arrangements for Work of Enterprises in Beijing during the Prevention and control of the Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Outbreak. 2020. Available at: http://www.beijing.gov.cn/zhengce/zhengcefagui/202001/t20200131_1622070.html (Accessed: 31 January 2020).

[37] Command WNCPPaC. Circular of Wuhan Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Prevention and Control Headquarters (No. 1). 2020. Available at: http://www.gov.cn/xinwen/2020-01/23/content_ 5471751.htm (Accessed: 23 January 2020).

[38] Stroud I, Gutman LM. Longitudinal changes in the mental health of UK young male and female adults during the COVID-19 pan-demic. Psychiatry Research. 2021; 303: 114074.

[39] Russo D, Hanel PHP, Altnickel S, van Berkel N. Predictors of well-being and productivity among software professionals dur-ing the COVID-19 pandemic – a longitudinal study. Empirical Software Engineering. 2021; 26: 62.

[40] Collins C, Landivar LC, Ruppanner L, Scarborough WJ. COVID‐19 and the gender gap in work hours. Gender, Work & Organization. 2020; 28: 101–112.

[41] Waddell N, Overall NC, Chang VT, Hammond MD. Gendered division of labor during a nationwide COVID-19 lockdown: Im-plications for relationship problems and satisfaction. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships. 2021; 38: 1759–1781.

[42] Sinclair RR, Allen T, Barber L, Bergman M, Britt T, Butler A, et al. Occupational Health Science in the Time of COVID-19: now more than ever. Occupational Health Science. 2020; 4: 1–22.

[43] Syrek C, Kuhnel J, Vahle-Hinz T, de Bloom J. Being an ac-countant, cook, entertainer and teacher-all at the same time: Changes in employees’ work and work-related well-being dur-ing the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. International Jour-nal of Psychology. 2022; 57: 20–32.

[44] El-Zoghby SM, Soltan EM, Salama HM. Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Mental Health and Social Support among Adult Egyptians. Journal of Community Health. 2020; 45: 689–695.

[45] Chen B, Li QX, Zhang H, Zhu JY, Yang X, Wu YH, et al. The psychological impact of COVID-19 outbreak on medical staff and the general public. Current Psychology. 2020. (in press)

[46] Du J, Mayer G, Hummel S, Oetjen N, Gronewold N, Zafar A, et al. Mental Health Burden in Different Professions During the Fi-nal Stage of the COVID-19 Lockdown in China: Cross-sectional Survey Study. Journal of Medical Internet Research. 2020; 22: e24240.

[47] Zhang W, Wang K, Yin L, Zhao W, Xue Q, Peng M, et al. Mental Health and Psychosocial Problems of Medical Health Workers during the COVID-19 Epidemic in China. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics. 2020; 89: 242–250.

[48] Rossi R, Socci V, Talevi D, Mensi S, Niolu C, Pacitti F, et al. COVID-19 Pandemic and Lockdown Measures Impact on Men-tal Health Among the General Population in Italy. Frontiers in Psychiatry. 2020; 11: 790.

[49] Pan SL, Cui M, Qian J. Information resource orchestration dur-ing the COVID-19 pandemic: a study of community lockdowns in China. International Journal of Information Management. 2020; 54: 102143.

[50] Miscellany AC. During the epidemic, men buy food and cook to confuse behavior. 2020. Available at: https://www.sohu.com /a/378283118_100094213 (Accessed: 7 March 2020).

[51] Pieh C, Budimir S, Probst T. The effect of age, gender, income, work, and physical activity on mental health during coronavirus disease (COVID-19) lockdown in Austria. Journal of Psychoso-matic Research. 2020; 136: 110186.

Abstracted / indexed in

Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch) Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,200 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.

Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition aims to evaluate a journal’s value from multiple perspectives including the journal impact factor, descriptive data about a journal’s open access content as well as contributing authors, and provide readers a transparent and publisher-neutral data & statistics information about the journal.

Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) DOAJ is a unique and extensive index of diverse open access journals from around the world, driven by a growing community, committed to ensuring quality content is freely available online for everyone.

SCImago The SCImago Journal & Country Rank is a publicly available portal that includes the journals and country scientific indicators developed from the information contained in the Scopus® database (Elsevier B.V.)

Publication Forum - JUFO (Federation of Finnish Learned Societies) Publication Forum is a classification of publication channels created by the Finnish scientific community to support the quality assessment of academic research.

Scopus: CiteScore 0.9 (2023) Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.

Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers Search for publication channels (journals, series and publishers) in the Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers to see if they are considered as scientific. (https://kanalregister.hkdir.no/publiseringskanaler/Forside).

Submission Turnaround Time

Conferences

Top