Effect of Rehydration with Mineral Water on Cardiorespiratory Fitness Following Exercise-Induced Dehydration in Athletes
1Department of Exercise Physiology, College of Sport Sciences and Physical Activity, King Saud University, 11451 Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
2Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, 5230 Odense, Denmark
DOI: 10.31083/j.jomh1810206 Vol.18,Issue 10,October 2022 pp.1-8
Published: 26 October 2022
*Corresponding Author(s): Khalid S. Aljaloud E-mail: khaljaloud@KSU.EDU.SA
Background: The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of rehydration with mineral water on cardiorespiratory fitness in athletes. Methods: Twenty athletes (age 21.7 ± 3 years) underwent a random, crossover design experimental trial. Three visits were arranged, with the first for baseline measurement. The second visit included three phases (pre-dehydration, post-dehydration, and post-rehydration), with either Zamzam (mineral water) or bottled water (control water) used. The third visit was similar to the second visit, but with an exchange of the type of water used. Cardiorespiratory fitness and blood parameters were evaluated. Results were compared between Zamzam water and bottled water, and between the phases for each type of water. Results: No significant difference was found between Zamzam and bottled water for the cardiorespiratory fitness markers. However, Zamzam water maintained cardiorespiratory functions including VO2peak, VT1, VT2, and VEpeak, even with rehydration equivalent to 100% of the loss in body weight following exercise-induced dehydration (>2% loss in body weight). Rehydration with bottled water was associated with a significant reduction in both the VO2peak and VEpeak. Conclusions: Rehydration with mineral water such as Zamzam is unlikely to impair cardiorespiratory fitness, even with an intake equal to 100% of the loss in body weight.
dehydration; rehydration; cardiorespiratory fitness; athletes
Talal M. AL-Qurashi,Khalid S. Aljaloud,Abdulaziz Aldayel,Yahya R. Alsharif,Abdulrahman I. Alaqil,Ghareeb O. Alshuwaier. Effect of Rehydration with Mineral Water on Cardiorespiratory Fitness Following Exercise-Induced Dehydration in Athletes. Journal of Men's Health. 2022. 18(10);1-8.
 Sawka MN, Burke LM, Eichner ER, Maughan RJ, Montain SJ, Stachenfeld NS. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and fluid replacement. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2007; 39: 377–390.
 Maughan RJ, Shirreffs SM. Dehydration and rehydration in competative sport. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 2010; 20: 40–47.
 Casa DJ, Armstrong LE, Hillman SK, Montain SJ, Reiff RV, Rich BS, et al. National athletic trainers’ association position statement: fluid replacement for athletes. Journal of Athletic Training. 2000; 35: 212–224.
 Maughan RJ, Shirreffs SM. Development of hydration strategies to optimize performance for athletes in high‐intensity sports and in sports with repeated intense efforts. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 2010; 20: 59–69.
 Khamnei S, Hosseinlou A, Zamanlu M. Water temperature, vol-untary drinking and fluid balance in dehydrated taekwondo ath-letes. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine. 2011; 10: 718–724.
 Ganio MS, Wingo JE, Carrolll CE, Thomas MK, Cureton KJ. Fluid Ingestion Attenuates the Decline in VO2peak Associated with Cardiovascular Drift. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2006; 38: 901–909.
 Adams JD. The Effect of Blinded Hydration State on Ther-moregulation and Performance in Male Cyclists. 2017; 2394.
 Connes P, Simmonds MJ, Brun J, Baskurt OK. Exercise hemorheology: Classical data, recent findings and unresolved issues. Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation. 2013; 53: 187–199.
 AbuMoh’d MF. Influence of an isotonic sports drink during ex-ercise and recovery on subsequent endurance capacity and aldos-terone response in the heat in well-trained endurance athletes. Sport Mont. 2020; 18: 25–31.
 Briars GL, Gordon GS, Lawrence A, Turner A, Perry S, Pill-brow D, et al. Swim drink study: a randomised controlled trial of during-exercise rehydration and swimming performance. BMJ Paediatrics Open. 2017; 1: e000075.
 Castillo CJ, Kern M, Lee M, Bolter N. The comparison of the effects of water, sports drink, and glucose polymer drink on hy-dration and physical performance amongst soccer athletes. Eu-ropean Journal of Sports Medicine. 2018; 4.
 Alfadul SM, Khan MA. Water quality of bottled water in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia: a comparative study with Riyadh mu-nicipal and Zamzam water. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A. 2011; 46: 1519–1528.
 Cerullo G, Parimbelli M, Perna S, Pecoraro M, Liguori G, Negro M, et al. Sodium citrate supplementation: an updated revision and practical recommendations on exercise performance, hydra-tion status, and potential risks. Translational Sports Medicine. 2020; 3: 518–525.
 Fan PW, Burns SF, Lee JKW. Efficacy of Ingesting an Oral Rehydration Solution after Exercise on Fluid Balance and En-durance Performance. Nutrients. 2020; 12: 3826.
 Shirreffs SM. Hydration in sport and exercise: water, sports drinks and other drinks. Nutrition Bulletin. 2009; 34: 374–379.
 Maughan RJ. Investigating the associations between hydration and exercise performance: methodology and limitations. Nutri-tion Reviews. 2012; 70: S128–S131.
 Stasiule L, Capkauskiene S, Vizbaraite D, Stasiulis A. Deep min-eral water accelerates recovery after dehydrating aerobic exer-cise: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2014; 11: 34.
 Bruce RA, Blackmon JR, Jones JW, Strait G. Exercising testing in adult normal subjects and cardiac patients. Pediatrics. 1963; 32: 742–756.
 Costill DL, Fink WJ. Plasma volume changes following exercise and thermal dehydration. Journal of Applied Physiology. 1974; 37: 521–525.
 Dill DB, Costill DL. Calculation of percentage changes in vol-umes of blood, plasma, and red cells in dehydration. Journal of Applied Physiology. 1974; 37: 247–248.
 Faria GS, Polese JC, Ribeiro-Samora GA, Scianni AA, Faria CDCM, Teixeira-Salmela LF. Validity of the accelerometer and smartphone application in estimating energy expenditure in indi-viduals with chronic stroke. Brazilian Journal of Physical Ther-apy. 2019; 23: 236–243.
 Del Coso J, González-Millán C, Salinero JJ, Abián-Vicén J, So-riano L, Garde S, et al. Muscle damage and its relationship with muscle fatigue during a half-iron triathlon. PLoS ONE. 2012; 7: e43280.
 Goodman SPJ, Moreland AT, Marino FE. The effect of active hypohydration on cognitive function: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Physiology and Behavior. 2019; 204: 297–308.
 Miller KC, McDermott BP, Yeargin SW, Fiol A, Schwellnus MP. An Evidence-Based Review of the Pathophysiology, Treatment, and Prevention of Exercise Associated Muscle Cramps. Journal of Athletic Training. 2021; 57: 5–15.
 Troyer W, Render A, Jayanthi N. Exercise-Associated Muscle Cramps in the Tennis Player. Current Reviews in Musculoskele-tal Medicine. 2020; 13: 612–621.
 Adams JD, Sekiguchi Y, Suh H, Seal AD, Sprong CA, Kirk-land TW, et al. Dehydration Impairs Cycling Performance, In-dependently of Thirst: a Blinded Study. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2018; 50: 1697–1703.
 Yang WH, Heine O, Grau M. Rapid weight reduction does not impair athletic performance of Taekwondo athletes - A pilot study. PLoS ONE. 2018; 13: e0196568.
 Casa DJ, Maresh CM, Armstrong LE, Kavouras SA, Herrera JA, Hacker FT, et al. Intravenous versus oral rehydration dur-ing a brief period: responses to subsequent exercise in the heat. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2000; 32: 124–133.
 Riebe D, Maresh CM, Armstrong LE, Kenefick RW, Castellani JW, Echegaray ME, et al. Effects of oral and intravenous rehy-dration on ratings of perceived exertion and thirst. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 1997; 29: 117–124.
 Shillington K. Fuel Utilization in Response to Two Commer-cially Available Beverages During Exercise in the Heat. 2017.
 Brun J, Varlet-Marie E, Raynaud de Mauverger E. Relation-ships between insulin sensitivity measured with the oral minimal model and blood rheology. Clinical Hemorheology and Micro-circulation. 2012; 51: 29–34.
 McArdle WD, Katch FI, Katch VL. Exercise Physiology: nu-trition, energy, and human performance. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: USA. 2010.
 Murray B. Hydration and Physical Performance. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 2007; 26: 542S–548S.
Vol., Issue , Invalid dateTable of contents
Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch) Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,200 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.
Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition aims to evaluate a journal’s value from multiple perspectives including the journal impact factor, descriptive data about a journal’s open access content as well as contributing authors, and provide readers a transparent and publisher-neutral data & statistics information about the journal.
Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) DOAJ is a unique and extensive index of diverse open access journals from around the world, driven by a growing community, committed to ensuring quality content is freely available online for everyone.
SCImago The SCImago Journal & Country Rank is a publicly available portal that includes the journals and country scientific indicators developed from the information contained in the Scopus® database (Elsevier B.V.)
Publication Forum - JUFO (Federation of Finnish Learned Societies) Publication Forum is a classification of publication channels created by the Finnish scientific community to support the quality assessment of academic research.
Scopus CiteScore 0.7 (2021) Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.
Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers Search for publication channels (journals, series and publishers) in the Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers to see if they are considered as scientific. (https://kanalregister.hkdir.no/publiseringskanaler/Forside).