Article Data

  • Views 139
  • Dowloads 11

Review

Open Access Special Issue

Chromosomal aneuploidies and associated rare genetic syndromes involved in male infertility

  • Eisa Tahmasbpour Marzouni1
  • Asghar Beigi Harchegani2
  • Issa Layali3

1Laboratory of Regenerative Medicine & Biomedical Innovations, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran

2Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3Department of Biochemistry, Sari Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sari, Iran

DOI: 10.31083/jomh.2021.016

Online publish date: 03 February 2021

*Corresponding Author(s): Issa Layali E-mail: drissalayali@yahoo.com

PDF (269.68 kB)

Abstract

Background and objectives: Recent investigations have reported more than 70 genetic syndromes involved in male infertility; however, the majority of these syndromes are extremely rare. We aimed to report the most common chromosomal abnormalities and associated rare genetic syndromes in the context of human male infertility.

Materials and Methods: We performed a review of published articles considering the most common chromosomal aneuploidies and rare genetic syndromes associated with male infertility on PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus.

Results: Chromosomal abnormalities are frequently found in infertile men, with an incidence rate of 2-15%. The chromosomal aberrations include the sex and autosomal chromosome abnormalities, as well as numerical and structural defects in chromosomes. There are various rare genetic syndromes involved in male infertility that are caused by structural and numerical abnormalities in chromosomes. Klinefelter syndrome is the most common type of sex chromosome aneuploidy in infertile males. Besides, Y chromosome microdeletions, particularly in azoospermia factor regions, serve as the second most common genetic cause of impaired spermatogenetic in infertile men. These molecular genetic abnormalities not only can be inherited, but also they may transmit to the next generation through assisted reproductive techniques and result in the birth of boys with higher risk of congenital abnormalities and infertility. Despite the normal secondary male sexual characteristics, some patients are azoospermic or severe oligozoospermic men. Therefore, identification of these molecular genetic factors and rare genetic disorders is essential in men with unexplained infertility.

Discussion and conclusion: Since most of molecular genetic abnormalities can be transmitted to the next generation, identification of these rare genetic disorders is crucial for men with unexplained infertility. It is also essential for clinicians and physicians of reproductive medicine and andrologists to initiate genetic evaluation, aneuploidy screening and counseling prior to any therapeutic procedures.

Keywords

Assisted reproductive techniques; Chromosomal aneuploidies; Male infertility; Rare genetic syndromes; Y chromosome

Cite and Share

Eisa Tahmasbpour Marzouni,Asghar Beigi Harchegani,Issa Layali. Chromosomal aneuploidies and associated rare genetic syndromes involved in male infertility. Journal of Men's Health. 2021.doi:10.31083/jomh.2021.016.

References

[1] Beigi Harchegani A, Shafaghatian H, Tahmasbpour E, Shahriary A. Regulatory functions of microRNAs in male reproductive health: a new approach to understanding male infertility. Reproduction Science. 2018; 1: 1-11.

[2] Dada R. Genetic Testing in male infertility. The Open Reproductive Science Journal. 2011; 3: 42-56.

[3] Tahmasbpour E, Balasubramanian D, Agarwal A. A multi-faceted approach to understanding male infertility: gene mutations, molecular defects and assisted reproductive techniques (ART). Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics. 2014; 31: 1115-1137.

[4] Tüttelmann F, Simoni M. Current recommendations for genetic testing in male infertility. European Urological Review. 2008; 3: 88-92.

[5] Hosseinzadeh Colagar A, Tahmasbpour Marzony E, Chaichi MJ. Zinc levels in seminal plasma are associated with sperm quality in fertile and infertile men. Nutrition research. 2009; 29: 82-88.

[6] Krausz C, Riera-Escamilla A. Genetics of male infertility. Nature Reviews Urology. 2018; 15: 369-384.

[7] Walsh T, Pera R, Turek P. The genetics of male infertility. Seminars in Reproductive Medicine. 2009; 27: 124-136.

[8] O’Flynn O’Brien KL, Varghese AC, Agarwal A. The genetic causes of male factor infertility: a review. Fertility and Sterility. 2010; 93: 1-12.

[9] Asero P, La Vignera S, Lanzafame F. Genetic aspects of male infertility. Journal of Andrological Sciences. 2010; 17: 1-16.

[10] Ferlin A, Raicu F, Gatta V, Zuccarello D, Palka G, Foresta C. Male infertility: role of genetic background. Reproductive Biomedicine Online. 2007; 14: 734-745.

[11] Goel H, Phadke SR. Reciprocal balanced translocation: infertility and recurrent spontaneous abortions in a family. Andrologia. 2009; 43: 75-77.

[12] Maduro MR, Lamb DJ. Understanding the new genetics of male infertility. The Journal of Urology. 2002; 168: 2197–2205.

[13] Carrell DT, De Jonge C, Lamb DJ. The genetics of male infertility: a field of study whose time is now. Archives of Andrology. 2006; 52: 269- 274.

[14] Ferlin A, Arredi B, Foresta C. Genetic causes of male infertility. Reproductive Toxicology. 2006; 22: 133-141.

[15] Gianaroli L. Possible interchromosomal effect in embryos generated by gametes from translocation carriers. Human Reproduction. 2002; 17: 3201-3207.

[16] Carrell DT. Contributions of spermatozoa to embryogenesis: as-says to evaluate their genetic and epigenetic fitness. Reproductive BioMedicine Online. 2008; 16: 474-484.

[17] Chandley AC, Edmond P, Christie S, Gowans L, Fletcher J, Frackiewicz A, et al. Cytogenetics and infertility in man. I. Karyotype and seminal analysis: results of a five-year survey of men attending a subfertility clinic. Annals of Human Genetics. 1975; 39: 231-254.

[18] Krausz C, Giachini C. Genetic risk factors in male infertility. Archives of Andrology. 2007; 53: 125-133.

[19] Antonelli A, Gandini L, Petrinelli P, Marcucci L, Elli R, Lombardo F, et al. Chromosomal alterations and male infertility. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation. 2000; 23: 677-683.

[20] Therman E, Susman B, Denniston C. The nonrandom participation of human acrocentric chromosomes in Robertsonian translocations. Annals of Human Genetics. 1989; 53: 49-65.

[21] Ananthapur V, Avvari S, Tella S, Nallari P, Akka J. A robertsonian translocation rob (14;15) (q10:q10) in a patient with recurrent abortions: a case report. Journal of Reproduction & Infertility. 2010; 11: 197-200.

[22] Van Assche E, Bonduelle M, Tournaye H, Joris H, Verheyen G, Devroey P, et al. Cytogenetics of infertile men. Human Reproduction. 1996; 11: 1-24.

[23] Keymolen K, Van Berkel K, Vorsselmans A, Staessen C, Liebaers I. Pregnancy outcome in carriers of Robertsonian translocations. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A. 2011; 155: 2381-2385.

[24] Johnson MD. Genetic risks of intracytoplasmic sperm injection in the treatment of male infertility: recommendations for genetic counseling and screening. Fertility and Sterility. 1998; 70: 397-411.

[25] Moradkhani K, Puechberty J, Bhatt S, Vago P, Janny L, Lefort G, et al. Meiotic segregation of rare Robertsonian translocations: sperm analysis of three t(14q;22q) cases. Human Reproduction. 2006; 21: 1166-1171.

[26] Baccetti B, Collodel G, Marzella R, Moretti E, Piomboni P, Scapigliati G, et al. Ultrastructural studies of spermatozoa from infertile males with Robertsonian translocations and 18, X, Y aneuploidies. Human Reproduction. 2005; 20: 2295-2300.

[27] Brugnon F, Janny L, Communal Y, Darcha C, Szczepaniak C, Pellestor F, et al. Apoptosis and meiotic segregation in ejaculated sperm from Robertsonian translocation carrier patients. Human Reproduction. 2011; 4: 1-12.

[28] Anahory T, Hamamah S, Andréo B, Hédon B, Claustres M, Sarda P, et al. Sperm segregation analysis of a (13;22) Robertsonian translocation carrier by FISH: a comparison of locus-specific probe and whole chromosome painting. Human Reproduction. 2005; 20: 1850-1854.

[29] Shi Q, Martin RH. Aneuploidy in human spermatozoa: FISH analysis in men with constitutional chromosomal abnormalities, and in infertile men. Reproduction. 2001; 121: 655-666.

[30] Gunel M, Cavkaytar S, Ceylaner G, Batioglu S. Azoospermia and cryp-torchidism in a male with a de novo reciprocal t(Y;16) translocation. Genetic Counseling. 2008; 19: 277-280.

[31] Morel F, Douet-Guilbert N, Le Bris M, Herry A, Amice V, Amice J, et al. Meiotic segregation of translocations during male gametogenesis. International Journal of Andrology. 2004; 27: 200-212.

[32] Oliver-Bonet M, Benet J, Sun F, Navarro J, Abad C, Liehr T, et al. Meiotic studies in two human reciprocal translocations and their association with spermatogenic failure. Human Reproduction. 2005; 20: 683-688.

[33] Hwang SH, Lee SM, Seo EJ, Choi KU, Park HJ, Park NC, et al. A case of male infertility with a reciprocal translocation t(X;14)(p11.4;p12). The Korean Journal of Laboratory Medicine. 2007; 27: 139-142. (In Korean)

[34] Hsu LYF. Phenotype/Karyotype correlations of Y chromosome aneuploidy with emphasis on structural aberrations in postnatally diagnosed cases. American Journal of Medical Genetics. 1994; 53: 108-140.

[35] Baccetti B, Bruni E, Collodel G, Gambera L, Moretti E, Marzella R, et al. 10, 15 reciprocal translocation in an infertile man: ultrastructural and fluorescence in-situ hybridization sperm study: case report. Human Reproduction. 2003; 18: 2302-2308.

[36] Bianco B, Christofolini D, Gava M, Mafra F, Moraes E, Barbosa C. Severe oligospermia associated with a unique balanced reciprocal translocation t(6;12)(q23;q24.3): male infertility related to t(6;12). Andrologia. 2009; 43: 145-148.

[37] Gu L, Zhang H, Zhu G. Impact of reciprocal translocation t(18; 21) on male infertility and embryo development: lessons from an oocyte-donating ICSI cycle. Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics. 2011; 28: 603-605.

[38] Chandley AC, Speed RM, McBeath S, Hargreave TB. A human 9;20 reciprocal translocation associated with male infertility analyzed at prophase and metaphase I of meiosis. Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics. 1986; 41: 145-153.

[39] Mikelsaar R, Pauklin M, Lissitsina J, Punab M. Reciprocal translo-cation t(7;16)(q21.2;p13.3) in an infertile man. Fertility and Sterility. 2006; 86: 719.e9-719.11.

[40] Alves C, Carvalho F, Cremades N, Sousa M, Barros A. Unique (Y;13) translocation in a male with oligozoospermia: cytogenetic and molecular studies. European Journal of Human Genetics. 2002; 10: 467-474.

[41] Pinho MJ, Neves R, Costa P, Ferrás C, Sousa M, Alves C, et al. Unique t(Y;1)(q12;q12) reciprocal translocation with loss of the heterochromatic region of chromosome 1 in a male with azoospermia due to meiotic arrest: a case report. Human Reproduction. 2005; 20: 689- 696.

[42] Pabst B, Glaubitz R, Schalk T, Schneider U, Schulze W, Miller K. Re-ciprocal translocation between Y chromosome long arm euchromatin and the short arm of chromosome 1. Annales De Genetique. 2002; 45: 5-8.

[43] Karaer K, Ergun MA, Weise A, Ewers E, Liehr T, Kosyakova N, et al. The case of an infertile male with an uncommon reciprocal X-autosomal translocation: how does this affect male fertility? Genetic Counseling. 2010; 21: 397-404.

[44] Klinefelter HF, Reifenstein EC, F A. Syndrome character-ized by gynecomastia aspermatogenes without A-Leydigism and increased excretion of follicle stimulating hormone. Journal of Clinical En-docrinology & Metabolism. 1942; 2: 615-627.

[45] Karimi H, Sabbaghian M, Haratian K, Vaziri Nasab H, Farrahi F, Moradi SZ, et al. A rare case of klinefelter syndrome patient with quintuple mosaic karyotype, diagnosed by GTG-banding and FISH. International Journal of Fertility &Amp; Sterility. 2014; 8: 221-224.

[46] Smyth CM, Bremner WJ. Klinefelter syndrome. Archives of Internal Medicine. 1998; 158: 1309-1314.

[47] Walsh T, Pera R, Turek P. The genetics of male infertility. Seminars in Reproductive Medicine. 2009; 27: 124-136.

[48] Foresta C, Garolla A, Bartoloni L, Bettella A, Ferlin A. Genetic abnormalities among severely oligospermic men who are candidates for intracytoplasmic sperm injection. The Journal of Clinical En-docrinology and Metabolism. 2005; 90: 152-156.

[49] Bielanska M, Tan SL, Ao A. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization of sex chromosomes in spermatozoa and spare preimplantation embryos of a Klinefelter 46,XY/47,XXY male. Human Reproduction. 2000; 15: 440-444.

[50] Velissariou V, Christopoulou S, Karadimas C, Pihos I, Kanaka-Gantenbein C, Kapranos N, et al. Rare XXY/XX mosaicism in a phenotypic male with Klinefelter syndrome: case report. European Journal of Medical Genetics. 2006; 49: 331-337.

[51] Franik S, Smeets D, van de Zande G, Gomes I, D’Hauwers K, Braat DDM, et al. Klinefelter syndrome and fertility-Impact of X-chromosomal inheritance on spermatogenesis. Andrologia. 2018; 50: e13004.

[52] Vogt P. Molecular genetic of human male infertility: from genes to new therapeutic perspectives. Current Pharmaceutical Design. 2004; 10: 471-500.

[53] Kim I, Khadilkar A, Ko E, Sabanegh Jr E. 47,XYY syndrome and male infertility. Reviews in Urology. 2013; 15: 188-196.

[54] Robinson DO, Jacobs PA. The origin of the extra Y chromosome in males with a 47,XYY karyotype. Human Molecular Genetics. 1999; 8: 2205-2209.

[55] Blanco J, Rubio C, Simon C, Egozcue J, Vidal F. Increased incidence of disomic sperm nuclei in a 47,XYY male assessed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Human Genetics. 1997; 99: 413-416.

[56] El-Dahtory F, Elsheikha HM. Male infertility related to an aberrant karyotype, 47,XYY: four case reports. Cases Journal. 2009; 2: 28.

[57] Abdel-Razic MM, Abdel-Hamid IA, ElSobky ES. Nonmosaic 47,XYY syndrome presenting with male infertility: case series. Andrologia. 2012; 44: 200-204.

[58] Milazzo JP, Rives N, Mousset-Siméon N, Macé B. Chromosome constitution and apoptosis of immature germ cells present in sperm of two 47,XYY infertile males. Human Reproduction. 2006; 21: 1749-1758.

[59] Zenteno-Ruiz JC, Kofman-Alfaro S, Méndez JP. 46,XX sex reversal. Archives of Medical Research. 2001; 32: 559-566.

[60] Pepene CE, Coman I, Mihu D, Militaru M, Duncea I. Infertility in a new 46, XX male with positive SRY confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization: a case report. Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2008; 35: 299-300.

[61] Ergun-Longmire B, Vinci G, Alonso L, Matthew S, Tansil S, Lin-Su K, et al. Clinical, hormonal and cytogenetic evaluation of 46,XX males and review of the literature. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2005; 18: 739-748.

[62] Anık A, Çatlı G, Abacı A, Böber E. 46,XX male disorder of sexual development:a case report. Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology. 2013; 5: 258-260.

[63] Wang T, Liu JH, Yang J, Chen J, Ye ZQ. 46, XX male sex reversal syndrome: a case report and review of the genetic basis. Andrologia. 2009; 41: 59-62.

[64] Rajender S, Rajani V, Gupta NJ, Chakravarty B, Singh L, Thangaraj K. SRY-negative 46,XX male with normal genitals, complete masculin-ization and infertility. Molecular Human Reproduction. 2006; 12: 341-346.

[65] Peng D, Zhang Y, Zhang X, Hu C, Liu M, Liu R. An infertile 45,X male with a SRY-bearing chromosome 13: a clinical case report and literature review. Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics. 2015; 32: 107-109.

[66] Papadimas J, Goulis DG, Giannouli C, Papanicolaou A, Tarlatzis B, Bontis JN. Ambiguous genitalia, 45,X/46,XY mosaic karyotype, and Y chromosome microdeletions in a 17-year-old man. Fertility and Sterility. 2001; 76: 1261-1263.

[67] Gassó-Matoses M, Picó-Alfonso A, Fernández-García J, Lobato-Encinas J, Mira-Llinares A. 45,X/46,XY gonadal dysgenesis in an infertile adult male. Urologia Internationalis. 1992; 48: 239-241.

[68] Ach T, Marmouch H, Elguiche D, Achour A, Marzouk H, Sayadi H, et al. A case of Kallmann syndrome associated with a non-functional pituitary microadenoma. Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports. 2018; 2018: 18-0027.

[69] Dzemaili S, Tiemensma J, Quinton R, Pitteloud N, Morin D, Dwyer AA. Beyond hormone replacement: quality of life in women with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Endocrine Connections. 2017; 6: 404-412.

[70] Sato N, Katsumata N, Kagami M, Hasegawa T, Hori N, Kawakita S, et al. Clinical assessment and mutation analysis of kallmann syndrome (KAL1) and fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1 or KAL2) in five families and 18 sporadic patients. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2004; 89: 1079-1088.

[71] Pratap Singh R, Mahmood K, Garg A, Goel K, Gunjana K. Kallmann syndrome-a rare and treatable cause of male infertility with imaging findings. Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences. 2016; 5: 6154-6156.

[72] Arkoncel MLCR, Arkoncel FRP, Lantion-Ang FL. A case of Kallmann syndrome. BMJ Case Reports. 2011; 2011: bcr0120113727.

[73] Paulis G, Paulis L, Romano G, Concas C, Di Sarno M, Pagano R, et al. Pregnancy and live birth after follicle-stimulating hormone treatment for an infertile couple including a male affected by Sertoli cell-only syndrome. Research and Reports in Urology. 2017; 9: 203-208.

[74] Stouffs K, Gheldof A, Tournaye H, Vandermaelen D, Bonduelle M, Lissens W, et al. Sertoli cell-only syndrome: behind the genetic scenes. BioMed Research International. 2016; 2016: 6191307.

[75] Hanmayyagari B, Guntaka M, Srinagesh. A rare case of male infertility: Sertoli only syndrome. CHRISMED. Journal of Health and Research. 2015; 2: 64.

[76] Seo JT, Ko WJ. Predictive factors of successful testicular sperm recov-ery in non-obstructive azoospermia patients. International Journal of Andrology. 2001; 24: 306-310.

[77] Zhang Y, Malekpour M, Al-Madani N, Kahrizi K, Zanganeh M, Mohseni M, et al. Sensorineural deafness and male infertility: a contiguous gene deletion syndrome. Journal of Medical Genetics. 2007; 44: 233-240.

[78] Hoppman N, Aypar U, Brodersen P, Brown N, Wilson J, Babovic-Vuksanovic D. Genetic testing for hearing loss in the United States should include deletionduplication analysis for the deafness/infertility locus at 15q15.3. Molecular Cytogenetics. 2013; 6: 19.

[79] Digilio M, Marino B. Clinical manifestations of Noonan syndrome. Images in Paediatric Cardiology. 2011; 3: 19-30.

[80] Sharland M, Burch M, McKenna WM, Paton MA. A clinical study of Noonan syndrome. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 1992; 67: 178-183.

[81] Elsawi MM, Pryor JP, Klufio G, Barnes C, Patton MA. Genital tract function in men with Noonan syndrome. Journal of Medical Genetics. 1994; 31: 468-470.

[82] Knowles MR, Daniels LA, Davis SD, Zariwala MA, Leigh MW. Pri-mary ciliary dyskinesia. Recent advances in diagnostics, genetics, and characterization of clinical disease. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 2013; 188: 913-922.

[83] Kawasaki A, Okamoto H, Wada A, Ainoya Y, Kita N, Maeyama T, et al. A case of primary ciliary dyskinesia treated with ICSI using testicular spermatozoa: case report and a review of the literature. Reproductive Medicine and Biology. 2015; 14: 195-200.

[84] Mahadevan M, Tsilfidis C, Sabourin L, Shutler G, Amemiya C, Jansen G, et al. Myotonic dystrophy mutation: an unstable CTG repeat in the 3’ untranslated region of the gene. Science. 1992; 255: 1253-1255.

[85] Kim WB, Jeong JY, Doo SW, Yang WJ, Song YS, Lee SR, et al. Myotonic dystrophy type 1 presenting as male infertility. Korean Journal of Urology. 2012; 53: 134.

[86] Klesert TR, Otten AD, Bird TD, Tapscott SJ. Trinucleotide repeat expansion at the myotonic dystrophy locus reduces expression of DMAHP. Nature Genetics. 1997; 16: 402-406.

[87] Cassidy SB, Driscoll DJ. Prader-Willi syndrome. European Journal of Human Genetics. 2009; 17: 3-13.

[88] Siemensma EPC, de Lind van Wijngaarden RFA, Otten BJ, de Jong FH, Hokken-Koelega ACS. Testicular failure in boys with Prader-Willi syndrome: longitudinal studies of reproductive hormones. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2012; 97: E452-E459.

[89] Vogels A, Moerman P, Frijns J, Bogaert GA. Testicular histology in boys with Prader-Willi syndrome: fertile or infertile? The Journal of Urology. 2008; 180: 1800-1804.

[90] Garcia-Tizon Larroca S, Blagoeva Atanasova V, Orera Clemente M, Aluja Mendez A, Ortega Abad V, Perez Fernandez-Pacheco R, et al. Prenatal diagnosis of Bardet-Biedl syndrome in a case of hyperechogenic kidneys: clinical use of DNA sequencing. Clinical Case Reports. 2017; 5: 449-453.

[91] Desai A, Jha O, Iyer V, Dada R, Kumar R, Tandon N. Reversible hypogonadism in Bardet-Biedl syndrome. Fertility and Sterility. 2009; 92: 391.e13-391.e15.

[92] Fox MS, Reijo Pera RA. Male infertility, genetic analysis of the DAZ genes on the human Y chromosome and genetic analysis of DNA repair. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. 2002; 186: 231-239.

[93] Ali S, Hasnain SE. Molecular dissection of the human Y-chromosome. Gene. 2002; 283: 1-10.

[94] Singh AR, Vrtel R, Vodicka R, Dhaifalah I, Konvalinka D, Janikova M, et al. Y Chromosome and male infertility. International Journal of Human Genetics. 2005; 5: 225-235.

[95] Foresta C, Ferlin A, Garolla A, Moro E, Pistorello M, Barbaux S, et al. High frequency of well-defined Y-chromosome deletions in idiopathic Sertoli cell-only syndrome. Human Reproduction. 1998; 13: 302-307.

[96] Krausz C, Giachini C. Genetic risk factors in male infertility. Archives of Andrology. 2007; 53: 125-133.

[97] Krausz C, Forti G, McElreavey K. The Y chromosome and male fertility and infertility. International Journal of Andrology. 2003; 26: 70-75.

[98] Müslümanoglu MH, Turgut M, Cilingir O, Can C, Ozyürek Y, Artan S. Role of the AZFd locus in spermatogenesis. Fertility and Sterility. 2005; 84: 519-522.

[99] Sertic J, Cvitkovic P, Myers A, Saiki RK, Rukavina AS. Genetic markers of male infertility: Y chromosome microdeletions and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance gene mutations. Croatian Medical Journal. 2001; 42: 416-420.

[100] Krausz C, Riera-Escamilla A. Genetics of male infertility. Nature Reviews Urology. 2018; 15: 369-384.

Abstracted / indexed in

Science Citation Index Expanded Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,200 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.

Social Sciences Citation Index Social Sciences Citation Index contains over 3,400 journals across 58 social sciences disciplines, as well as selected items from 3,500 of the world’s leading scientific and technical journals. More than 9.37 million records and 122 million cited references date back from 1900 to present.

Current Contents - Social & Behavioral Sciences Current Contents - Social & Behavioral Sciences provides easy access to complete tables of contents, abstracts, bibliographic information and all other significant items in recently published issues from over 1,000 leading journals in the social and behavioral sciences.

Current Contents - Clinical Medicine Current Contents - Clinical Medicine provides easy access to complete tables of contents, abstracts, bibliographic information and all other significant items in recently published issues from over 1,000 leading journals in clinical medicine.

SCOPUS Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.

DOAJ DOAJ is a community-curated online directory that indexes and provides access to high quality, open access, peer-reviewed journals.

CrossRef Crossref makes research outputs easy to find, cite, link, assess, and reuse. Crossref committed to open scholarly infrastructure and collaboration, this is now announcing a very deliberate path.

Portico Portico is a community-supported preservation archive that safeguards access to e-journals, e-books, and digital collections. Our unique, trusted process ensures that the content we preserve will remain accessible and usable for researchers, scholars, and students in the future.

Submission Turnaround Time

Conferences

    Top