The effects of BCAA and creatine supplementation on anaerobic capacity and ball kicking speed in male football players
1Department of Coaching Education/Sports Health Sciences, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Sinop University, 57010 Sinop, Turkey
2Department of Physical Education and Sports/Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Sinop University, 57010 Sinop, Turkey
3Department of Recreation, Yaşar Doğu Faculty of Sport Sciences, Ondokuz Mayıs University, 55270 Samsun, Turkey
DOI: 10.31083/jomh.2021.058 Vol.18,Issue 1,January 2022 pp.1-9
Submitted: 05 March 2021 Accepted: 29 March 2021
Published: 31 January 2022
Background and objective: The use of nutritional supplements has increased in recent years. This study analyzes the effects of Branched-Chain Amino Acids (BCAA) and creatine (CR) supplementation on anaerobic capacity and ball kicking speed in football players.
Material and methods: 24 volunteer-active male amateur football players between 18--26 were recruited for this study. Football players were randomly divided into three groups as BCAA (n = 8), CR (n = 8), and placebo (PLA) (n = 8). Experimental groups were given 5 g BCAA and 2 g creatine before and after exercise, whereas the placebo group ingested bran, performance tests and measurements were performed, and results were assessed.
Results: BCAA group average power (pre: 530.70 ± 53.73 W vs. post: 567.65 ± 66.68 W; p = 0.028), CR group minimum power (pre: 413.75 ± 51.13 W vs. post: 462.82 ± 71.93 W; p = 0.043) increased, while there were decreases in peak power (pre: 659.34 ± 121.03 W vs. post: 613.20 ± 124.24 W; p = 0.043) and fatigue index (pre: 6.55 ± 2.12 W/s vs. post: 4.34 ± 2.37 W/s; p = 0.043) parameters of PLA group (p < 0.05). There were statistically signiﬁcant differences in the BCAA group in rest, pre-and post-supplementation; CR group in pre-and post-supplementation; PLA group in rest, pre-and post-supplementation (p < 0.05).
Conclusions: BCAA and creatine consumption do not affect recovery rates in football players regarding obtained data. But, regarding other ﬁndings of this study, BCAA and creatine supplementation improves anaerobic capacity, provides strength endurance against fatigue, and prevents the decrement of ball-kicking speed in exhaustion.
BCAA; Creatine; Anaerobic capacity; Muscle strength endurance; Ball kicking speed; Recovery
Ahmet Mor,Kürşat Acar,Ali Kerim Yılmaz,Erkal Arslanoglu. The effects of BCAA and creatine supplementation on anaerobic capacity and ball kicking speed in male football players. Journal of Men's Health. 2022. 18(1);1-9.
 Kilding AE, Tunstall H, Kuzmic D. Suitability of FIFA’s “The 11” training programme for young football players-impact on physical performance. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 2008; 7: 320–326.
 McMillan K. Lactate threshold responses to a season of professional British youth soccer. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2005; 39: 432–436.
 Miranda REEPC, Antunes HKM, Pauli JR, Puggina EF, da Silva ASR. Effects of 10-week soccer training program on anthropometric, psychological, technical skills and specific performance parameters in youth soccer players. Science & Sports. 2013; 28: 81–87.
 McDowall JA. Supplement use by young athletes. Journal of Sports Science Medicine. 2007; 6: 337–342.
 Rico-Sanz J. Body composition and nutritional assessments in soccer. International Journal of Sport Nutrition. 1998; 8: 113–123.
 Dudgeon WD, Kelley EP, Scheett TP. In a single-blind, matched group design: branched-chain amino acid supplementation and resistance training maintains lean body mass during a caloric restricted diet. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2016; 13: 1–10.
 Platt KM, Charnigo RJ, Shertzer HG, Pearson KJ. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation in combination with voluntary running improves body composition in female C57BL/6 mice. Journal of Dietary Supplements. 2016; 13: 473–486.
 Shimomura Y, Murakami T, Nakai N, Nagasaki M, Harris RA. Exercise promotes BCAA catabolism: effect of BCAA supplementation on skeletal muscle during exercise. The Journal of Nutrition. 2004; 134: 1583–1587.
 Howatson G, Hoad M, Goodall S, Tallent J, Bell PG, French DN. Exercise-induced muscle damage is reduced in resistance-trained males by branched chain amino acids: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2012; 9: 20.
 Ra S, Miyazaki T, Ishikura K, Nagayama H, Komine S, Nakata Y, et al. Combined effect of branched-chain amino acids and taurine supplementation on delayed onset muscle soreness and muscle damage in high-intensity eccentric exercise. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2013; 10: 51.
 Lee C, Lin J, Cheng C. Effect of caffeine ingestion after creatine supplementation on intermittent high-intensity sprint performance. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2011; 111: 1669–1677.
 Brudnak MA. Creatine: are the benefits worth the risk? Toxicology Letters. 2004; 150: 123–130.
 Hall M, Trojian TH. Creatine supplementation. Current Sports Medicine Reports. 2013; 12: 240–244.
 Candow DG, Chilibeck PD, Burke DG, Mueller KD, Lewis JD. Effect of different frequencies of creatine supplementation on muscle size and strength in young adults. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2011; 25: 1831–1838.
 Beck TW, Housh TJ, Johnson GO, Coburn JW, Malek MH, Cramer JT. Effects of a drink containing creatine, amino acids, and protein combined with ten weeks of resistance training on body composition, strength, and anaerobic performance. Journal of Strength and Condi-tioning Research. 2007; 21: 100–104.
 Eckerson JM, Bull AA, Moore GA. Effect of thirty days of creatine supplementation with phosphate salts on anaerobic working capacity and body weight in man. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2008; 22: 826–832.
 Bloomfield J, Polman R, O’Donoghue P. Physical demands of different positions in FA premier league soccer. Journal of Sports Science Medicine. 2007; 6: 63–70.
 Nande PJ, Vali SA. Fitness evaluation tests for competitive sports. 1st ed. Mumbai: Himalaya Publishing House; 2010. p. 49–50.
 Mor A, İpekoǧlu G, Arslanoǧlu E, Arslanoǧlu C, Acar K. The acute effects of combined supplementation of beta-alanine, carbohydrate and whey protein on biochemical parameters of athletes after exhaustive exercise. Progress in Nutrition. 2018; 20: 329–337.
 Antonio J, Ciccone V. The effects of pre versus post workout supplementation of creatine monohydrate on body composition and strength. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2013; 10: 36.
 Chwalbiñska-Moneta J. Effect of creatine supplementation on aerobic performance and anaerobic capacity in elite rowers in the course of endurance training. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 2003; 13: 173–183.
 Hoffman JR, Stout JR, Falvo MJ, Kang J, Ratamess NA. Effect of low-dose, short-duration creatine supplementation on anaerobic exercise performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2005; 19: 260–264.
 Claudino JG, Mezêncio B, Amaral S, Zanetti V, Benatti F, Roschel H, et al. Creatine monohydrate supplementation on lower-limb muscle power in Brazilian elite soccer players. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2014; 11: 32.
 Rawson ES, Conti MP, Miles MP. Creatine supplementation does not reduce muscle damage or enhance recovery from resistance exercise. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2007; 21: 1208–1213.
 Oliver JM, Jagim AR, Pischel I, Jäger R, Purpura M, Sanchez A, et al. Effects of short-term ingestion of Russian tarragon prior to creatine monohydrate supplementation on whole body and muscle creatine retention and anaerobic sprint capacity: a preliminary investigation. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2014; 11: 6.
 Fukuda DH, Smith AE, Kendall KL, Dwyer TR, Kerksick CM, Beck TW, et al. The effects of creatine loading and gender on anaerobic running capacity. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2010; 24: 1826–1833.
 Kendall KL, Smith AE, Graef JL, Fukuda DH, Moon JR, Beck TW, et al. Effects of four weeks of high-intensity interval training and creatine supplementation on critical power and anaerobic working capacity in college-aged men. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2009; 23: 1663–1669.
 Law YLL, Ong WS, GillianYap TL, Lim SCJ, Chia EV. Effects of two and five days of creatine loading on muscular strength and anaerobic power in trained athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2009; 23: 906–914.
 van Hall G, Raaymakers JS, Saris WH, Wagenmakers AJ. Ingestion of branched-chain amino acids and tryptophan during sustained exercise in man: failure to affect performance. Journal of Physiology. 1995; 486: 789–794.
 Jang TR, Wu CL, Chang CM, Hung W, Fang SH, Chang CK. Effect of carbohydrate, branched-chain amino acids. and arginine in recovery period on the subsequent performance in wrestlers. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2011; 8: 1–11.
 Shimomura Y, Yamamoto Y, Bajotto G, Sato J, Murakami T, Shimomura N, et al. Nutraceutical effects of branched-chain amino acids on skeletal muscle. Journal of Nutrition. 2006; 136: 529S–532S.
 De Palo EF, Gatti R, Cappellin E, Schiraldi C, De Palo CB, Spinella P. Plasma lactate, GH and GH-binding protein levels in exercise following BCAA supplementation in athletes. Amino Acids. 2001; 20: 1–11.
 Kim D, Kim S, Jeong W, Lee H. Effect of BCAA intake during endurance exercises on fatigue substances. muscle damage substances, and energy metabolism substances. Journal of Exercise Nutrition and Biochemistry. 2013; 17: 169–180.
 Kephart WC, Wachs TD, Thompson RM, Brooks Mobley C, Fox CD, McDonald JR, et al. Ten weeks of branched-chain amino acid supplementation improves select performance and immunological variables in trained cyclists. Amino Acids. 2016; 48: 779–789.
 Jafari H, Ross JB, Emhoff CW. Effects of branched-chain amino acid supplementation on exercise performance and recovery in highly endurance-trained athletes. Environmental and Exercise Physiology. 2016; 30.
 Dorrell HF, Gee TI. The acute effects different quantities of branched-chain amino acids have on recovery of muscle function. Sports Nutrition and Therapy. 2016; 1: 1–5.
 Stoppani J, Scheett T, Pena J, Rudolph C, Charlebois D. Consuming a supplement containing branched-chain amino acids during a resistance-training program increases lean mass. muscle strength and fat loss. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2009; 6: 1–2.
 Becque MD, Lochmann JD, Melrose DR. Effects of oral creatine sup-plementation on muscular strength and body composition. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2000; 32: 654–658.
 Francaux M, Poortmans JR. Effects of training and creatine supple-ment on muscle strength and body mass. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology. 1999; 80: 165–168.
 Mendes RR, Pires I, Oliveira A, Tirapegui J. Effects of creatine supplementation on the performance and body composition of competitive swimmers. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. 2004; 15: 473–478.
 Qin L, Xun P, Bujnowski D, Daviglus ML, Van Horn L, Stamler J, et al. Higher branched-chain amino acid intake is associated with a lower prevalence of being overweight or obese in middle-aged East Asian and Western adults. Journal of Nutrition. 2011; 141: 249–254.
 Gualano AB, Bozza T, Lopes De Campos P, Roschel H, Dos Santos Costa A, Luiz Marquezi M, et al. Branched-chain amino acids supplementation enhances exercise capacity and lipid oxidation during endurance exercise after muscle glycogen depletion. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. 2011; 51: 82–88.
 VanDusseldorp TA, Escobar KA, Johnson KE, Stratton MT, Moriarty T, Cole N, et al. Effect of branched-chain amino acid supplementation on recovery following acute eccentric exercise. Nutrients. 2018; 10:1389.
 de Poli RDAB, Roncada LH, Malta EDS, Artioli GG, Bertuzzi R, Zagatto AM. Creatine supplementation improves phosphagen energy pathway during supramaximal effort, but does not improve anaerobic capacity or performance. Frontiers in Physiology. 2019; 10: 352.
 Yáñez-Silva A, Buzzachera CF, Piçarro IDC, Januario RSB, Ferreira LHB, McAnulty SR, et al. Effect of low dose. short-term creatine supplementation on muscle power output in elite youth soccer players. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2017; 14: 5.
Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch) Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,200 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.
Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition aims to evaluate a journal’s value from multiple perspectives including the journal impact factor, descriptive data about a journal’s open access content as well as contributing authors, and provide readers a transparent and publisher-neutral data & statistics information about the journal.
Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) DOAJ is a unique and extensive index of diverse open access journals from around the world, driven by a growing community, committed to ensuring quality content is freely available online for everyone.
SCImago The SCImago Journal & Country Rank is a publicly available portal that includes the journals and country scientific indicators developed from the information contained in the Scopus® database (Elsevier B.V.)
Publication Forum - JUFO (Federation of Finnish Learned Societies) Publication Forum is a classification of publication channels created by the Finnish scientific community to support the quality assessment of academic research.
Scopus CiteScore 0.7 (2021) Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.
Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers Search for publication channels (journals, series and publishers) in the Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers to see if they are considered as scientific. (https://kanalregister.hkdir.no/publiseringskanaler/Forside).