Development of multistage 10-m shuttle run test for VO2max estimation in healthy adults
1Department of Sports Medicine, Kyunghee University, 17104 Yongin, Republic of Korea
2Physical Acitvity and Performance Institute, Konkuk University, 05029 Seoul, Republic of Korea
3Department of Sports Medicine and Science, Graduate School of Konkuk University, 05029 Seoul, Republic of Korea
4Taekwondo Research Institute, Kukkiwon, 06130 Seoul, Republic of Korea
DOI: 10.31083/jomh.2021.066 Vol.18,Issue 1,January 2022 pp.1-8
Submitted: 24 March 2021 Accepted: 23 April 2021
Published: 31 January 2022
Background and objective: The disadvantage of the traditional 20-m multistage shuttle run test (MST) is that it requires a long space for measurements and does not include various age groups to develop the test. Therefore, we developed a new MST to improve the spatial limitation by reducing the measurement to a 10-m distance and to resolve the bias via uniform distributions of gender and age.
Material and methods: Study subjects included 120 healthy adults (60 males and 60 females) aged 20 to 50 years. All subjects performed a graded maximal exercise test (GXT) and a 10-m MST at ﬁve-day intervals. We developed a regression model using 70% of the subject's data and performed a cross-validation test using 30% of the data.
Results: The male regression model's coeﬃcient of determination (R2) was 58.8%, and the standard error of estimation (SEE) was 4.17 mL/kg/min. The female regression model's R2 was 69.2%, and the SEE was 3.39 mL/kg/min. The 10-m MST showed a high correlation with GXT on the VO2max (males: 0.816; females: 0.821). In the cross-validation test for the developed regression models, the male's SEE was 4.38 mL/kg/min, and the female's SEE was 4.56 mL/kg/min.
Conclusion: Thus, the 10-m MST is an accurate and valid method for estimating the VO2max. Therefore, the 10-m MST developed by us can be used when the existing 20-m MST cannot be used due to spatial limitations and can be applied to both men and women in their 20s and 50s.
Shuttle run test; VO2max estimation; Exercise test; Multistage shuttle run
Hong-Lae Cho,Hun-Young Park,Sang-Seok Nam. Development of multistage 10-m shuttle run test for VO2max estimation in healthy adults. Journal of Men's Health. 2022. 18(1);1-8.
 Im J-H, Jeon Y-J, Chang H-K, Kim H-J, Kim K-H, Lee B-K. Predictions of V˙ O 2 max using metabolical responses in submaximal exercise and distance running for male, and comparison the validity of these prediction models. Off J Korean Acad Kinesiol 2012; 14: 33–46.
 Im J-H, Jeon Y-J, Chang H-K, Kim H-J, Lee B-K. Predictions Developments of V˙ O 2 max by submaximal metabolical responses, physical variables and hr responses for adult women. The Official Journal of the Korean Academy of Kinesiology. 2012; 14: 73–84.
 Sui X, LaMonte MJ, Laditka JN, Hardin JW, Chase N, Hooker SP, et al. Cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity as mortality predictors in older adults. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2007; 298: 2507–2516.
 Hooker SP, Sui X, Colabianchi N, Vena J, Laditka J, LaMonte MJ, et al. Cardiorespiratory fitness as a predictor of fatal and nonfatal stroke in asymptomatic women and men. Stroke. 2008; 39: 2950–2957.
 Barlow CE, LaMonte MJ, Fitzgerald SJ, Kampert JB, Perrin JL, Blair SN. Cardiorespiratory fitness is an independent predictor of hypertension incidence among initially normotensive healthy women. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2006; 163: 142–150.
 Sawada SS, Lee I, Muto T, Matuszaki K, Blair SN. Cardiorespiratory fitness and the incidence of type 2 diabetes: prospective study of Japanese men. Diabetes Care. 2003; 26: 2918–2922.
 LaMonte MJ, Barlow CE, Jurca R, Kampert JB, Church TS, Blair SN. Cardiorespiratory fitness is inversely associated with the incidence of metabolic syndrome: a prospective study of men and women. Circulation. 2005; 112: 505–512.
 Sawada SS, Muto T, Tanaka H, Lee I, Paffenbarger RS, Shindo M, et al. Cardiorespiratory fitness and cancer mortality in Japanese men: a prospective study. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2003; 35: 1546–1550.
 Jae JH, Kim KJ. Validity of shuttle-run test for cardiopulmonary function assessment in adolescent athletes. Korea Coach Dev Cent 2010; 9: 95–102.
 Pescatello LS, Riebe D, Thompson PD. ACSM’s guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2014.
 Wier LT, Jackson AS, Ayers GW, Arenare B. Nonexercise models for estimating VO2max with waist girth, percent fat, or BMI. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2006; 38: 555–561.
 Cao Z, Miyatake N, Higuchi M, Ishikawa-Takata K, Miyachi M, Tabata I. Prediction of VO2max with daily step counts for Japanese adult women. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2009; 105: 289–296.
 Brouha L, Fradd NW, Savage BM. Studies in physical efficiency of college students. research quarterly. American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation. 1944; 15: 211–224.
 Balke B. A simple field test for the assessment of physical fitness. Civil Aeromedical Research Institute. 1963; 1–8.
 Cooper KH. A means of assessing maximal oxygen intake. Correlation between field and treadmill testing. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1968; 203: 201–204.
 Léger LA, Lambert J. A maximal multistage 20-m shuttle run test to predict VO2 max. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology. 1982; 49: 1–12.
 Loudon JK, Cagle PE, Figoni SF, Nau KL, Klein RM. A submaximal all-extremity exercise test to predict maximal oxygen consumption. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 1998; 30: 1299–1303.
 Leibetseder VJ, Ekmekcioglu C, Haber P. A simple running test to estimate cardiorespiratory fitness. Journal of Exercise Physiology. 2002; 5: 6–13.
 Osborne G, Wolfe LA, Burggraf GW, Norman R. Relationships between cardiac dimensions, anthropometric characteristics and max-imal aerobic power (VO2max) in young men. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 1992; 13: 219–224.
 Sanada K, Midorikawa T, Yasuda T, Kearns CF, Abe T. Development of nonexercise prediction models of maximal oxygen uptake in healthy Japanese young men. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2007; 99: 143–148.
 Malek MH, Housh TJ, Berger DE, Coburn JW, Beck TW. A new non-exercise-based Vo2max prediction equation for aerobically trained men. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2005; 19: 559–565.
 Matsuzaka A, Takahashi Y, Yamazoe M, Kumakura N, Ikeda A, Wilk B, et al. Validity of the multistage 20-M shuttle-run test for Japanese children, adolescents, and adults. Pediatric Exercise Science. 2004; 16: 113–125.
 Léger LA, Mercier D, Gadoury C, Lambert J. The multistage 20 metre shuttle run test for aerobic fitness. Journal of Sports Sciences. 1988; 6: 93–101.
 Léger L, Gadoury C. Validity of the 20 m shuttle run test with 1 min stages to predict VO2max in adults. Canadian Journal of Sport Sciences. 1989; 14: 21–26.
 van Mechelen W, Hlobil H, Kemper HC. Validation of two running tests as estimates of maximal aerobic power in children. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology. 1986; 55: 503–506.
 Ramsbottom R, Brewer J, Williams C. A progressive shuttle run test to estimate maximal oxygen uptake. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 1988; 22: 141–144.
 Stickland MK, Petersen SR, Bouffard M. Prediction of maximal aerobic power from the 20-m multi-stage shuttle run test. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology. 2003; 28: 272–282.
 Andersen LB, Andersen TE, Andersen E, Anderssen SA. An intermit-tent running test to estimate maximal oxygen uptake: the Andersen test. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. 2008; 48: 434–437.
 Mikawa K, Senjyu H. Development of a field test for evaluating aerobic fitness in middle-aged adults: validity of a 15-m incremental shuttle walk and run test. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine. 2011; 10: 712–717.
 Nam S-S, Ham J-H, Park H-Y, Bae S-K, Ko B-H, Kim Y-H, et al. Development of anaerobic threshold (HRLT, HRVT) estimation equation using heart rate threshold (HRT) during maximal bike exercise test. Korean Soc Sport Sci 2015; 24: 1165–1177.
 Ham J, Park H, Kim Y, Bae S, Ko B, Nam S. Development of an anaerobic threshold (HRLT, HRVT) estimation equation using the heart rate threshold (HRT) during the treadmill incremental exercise test. Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry. 2017; 21: 43–49.
 Nam SS, Kim JW, Jeon JW, Sunoo S. Effects of new Poomsae training during 12weeks on body composition, physical fitness and blood lipid for obesity women. Taekwondo J Kukkiwon. 2012; 3: 91–111.
 Cao T, Jung E, Kim E, Kim K, Kim J, Nho H. Comparison of exercise intensity and energy consumption between different TAI CHI positions. Korean Journal of Sport Science. 2014; 23: 1161–1170.
 Hill AV, Lupton H. Muscular exercise, lactic acid, and the supply and utilization of oxygen. Quorum Journal Manager. 1923; 135–171.
 Taylor HL, Buskirk E, Henschel A. Maximal oxygen intake as an objective measure of cardio-respiratory performance. Journal of Applied Physiology. 1955; 8: 73–80.
 Issekutz B, Birkhead NC, Rodahl K. Use of respiratory quotients in assessment of aerobic work capacity. Journal of Applied Physiology. 1962; 17: 47–50.
 St Clair Gibson A, Broomhead S, Lambert MI, Hawley JA. Prediction of maximal oxygen uptake from a 20-m shuttle run as measured directly in runners and squash players. Journal of Sports Sciences. 1998; 16: 331–335.
Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch) Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,200 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.
Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition aims to evaluate a journal’s value from multiple perspectives including the journal impact factor, descriptive data about a journal’s open access content as well as contributing authors, and provide readers a transparent and publisher-neutral data & statistics information about the journal.
Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) DOAJ is a unique and extensive index of diverse open access journals from around the world, driven by a growing community, committed to ensuring quality content is freely available online for everyone.
SCImago The SCImago Journal & Country Rank is a publicly available portal that includes the journals and country scientific indicators developed from the information contained in the Scopus® database (Elsevier B.V.)
Publication Forum - JUFO (Federation of Finnish Learned Societies) Publication Forum is a classification of publication channels created by the Finnish scientific community to support the quality assessment of academic research.
Scopus CiteScore 0.7 (2021) Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.
Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers Search for publication channels (journals, series and publishers) in the Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers to see if they are considered as scientific. (https://kanalregister.hkdir.no/publiseringskanaler/Forside).