Respiratory muscle strength and pulmonary functions in athletes: differences by BMI classiﬁcations
1Department of Trainer Education, University of Ondokuz Mayıs, 55139 Samsun, Turkey
2Department of Physical Education and Sport Teacher, Ondokuz Mayıs University, 55139 Samsun, Turkey
DOI: 10.31083/jomh.2021.076 Vol.18,Issue 3,March 2022 pp.1-8
Submitted: 17 May 2021 Accepted: 02 July 2021
Published: 31 March 2022
*Corresponding Author(s): Emre Karaduman E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com
Background and objective: The respiratory capacity, which substantially affects exercise perfor-mance, tends to be affected by many factors such as anthropometric characteristics and different sports branches. We know which body mass index (BMI) category negatively affects pulmonary functions (PFs) in sedentary, but it is unclear in the athlete population. Thus, the ﬁrst aim of this study was to compare respiratory muscle strength (RMS) and PFs in athletes according to BMI categories. Furthermore, we examined whether different sports disciplines affect RMS and PFs as a second aim in the study.
Methods: Athletes were divided into four groups according to BMI categories (<18.5, 18.5–24.9, 25.0–29.9, and ≥30.0 kg/m2) and two groups (individual and team) according to their sport disciplines.
Results: The results showed that signiﬁcant differences in MIP (cmH2O), MEP (cmH2O), FVC (lt), and FEV1 (lt) scores according to BMI categories (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05). We found that the highest RMS scores were in the 18.5–24.9 and 25.0–29.9 kg/m2 BMI categories (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05). Also, it was revealed that individual athletes' MIP, MEP, FVC, and FEV1 scores were higher than others in sports disciplines (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05).
Conclusion: These ﬁndings suggest that athletes' best RMS and PFs scores can be obtained in the 18.5-24.9 or 25.0-29.9 kg/m2 BMI categories. Accordingly, we consider that different BMI values have varied effects on the athletes' respiratory capacities and should be kept under constant control. Also, individual athletes had the highest RMS and PFs due to the characteristics of sports disciplines.
Body mass index; Respiratory functions; Sports disciplines; Individual athletes; Team athletes
Emre Karaduman,Özgür Bostancı,Levent Bayram. Respiratory muscle strength and pulmonary functions in athletes: differences by BMI classiﬁcations. Journal of Men's Health. 2022. 18(3);1-8.
 Shin YS, Yang SM, Kim JH, Lee JU, Kim MY, Lee LK, et al. Respiratory function of the Korean elite judo athletes and non-athletes. Archives of Budo. 2017; 13: 297–307.
 Gaurav V, Singh A, Singh S. Comparison of physical fitness variables between individual games and team games athletes. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2011; 4: 547–549.
 Lazovic B, Mazic S, Suzic-Lazic J, Djelic M, Djordjevic-Saranovic S, Durmic T, et al. Respiratory adaptations in different types of sport. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences. 2015; 19: 2269–2274.
 Mazic S, Lazovic B, Djelic M, Suzic-Lazic J, Djordjevic-Saranovic S, Durmic T, et al. Respiratory parameters in elite athletes – does sport have an influence? Revista Portuguesa De Pneumologia. 2015; 21: 192–197.
 Santos DA, Silva AM, Matias CN, Magalhães JP, Minderico CS, Thomas DM, et al. Utility of novel body indices in predicting fat mass in elite athletes. Nutrition. 2015; 31: 948–954.
 Nuttall FQ. Body Mass Index: Obesity, BMI, and Health: a Critical Review. Nutrition Today. 2015; 50: 117–128.
 Mungreiphy NK, Kapoor S, Sinha R. Relationship between nutritional status, respiratory performance and age: study among Tangkhul Naga females of Northeast India. Acta Biologica Szegediensis. 2012; 56: 31–36.
 Walsh J, Heazlewood IT, Climstein M. Body Mass Index in Master Athletes: Review of the Literature. Journal of Lifestyle Medicine. 2018; 8: 79–98.
 Arena R, Cahalin LP. Evaluation of Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Respiratory Muscle Function in the Obese Population. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases. 2014; 56: 457–464.
 Mahadev S, Salome CM, Berend N, King GG. The effect of low lung volume on airway function in obesity. Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology. 2013; 188: 192–199.
 Watson RA, Pride NB. Postural changes in lung volumes and respiratory resistance in subjects with obesity. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2005; 98: 512–517.
 Salome CM, King GG, Berend N. Physiology of obesity and effects on lung function. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2010; 108: 206–211.
 Littleton SW. Impact of obesity on respiratory function. Respirology. 2012; 17: 43–49.
 Melo LC, Silva MAMD, Calles ACDN. Obesity and lung function: a systematic review. Einstein. 2014; 12: 120–125.
 Sonpeayung R, Tantisuwat A, Janwantanakul P, Thaveeratitham P. Total and Compartmental Chest Wall Volumes, Lung Function, and Respiratory Muscle Strength in Individuals with Abdominal Obesity: Effects of Body Positions. Journal of Obesity. 2019; 2019: 1–10.
 Do JG, Park C, Lee Y, Yoon KJ. Association between underweight and pulmonary function in 282,135 healthy adults: a cross-sectional study in Korean population. Scientific Reports. 2019; 9: 14308.
 Subhan MMF, Ali SA, Bokhari SSI, Khan MN, Ahmad HR. Under-weight and overweight men have greater exercise-induced dyspnoea than normal weight men. Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences. 2012; 117: 383–389.
 Kroff J, Terblanche E. The kinanthropometric and pulmonary deter-minants of global respiratory muscle strength and endurance indices in an athletic population. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2010; 110: 49–55.
 Neogi A, Chakraborty C, Chatterjee S, Dey SK. Anthropometric pro-files and pulmonary function parameters of male Football & Hockey players according to their specific playing position: A Comparative Study. International Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology. 2018; 7: 10–23.
 Mujika I, Halson S, Burke LM, Balagué G, Farrow D. An Integrated, Multifactorial Approach to Periodization for Optimal Performance in Individual and Team Sports. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 2018; 13: 538–561.
 McKenzie DC. Respiratory physiology: adaptations to high-level exercise. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2012; 46: 381–384.
 Durmic T, Lazovic Popovic B, Zlatkovic Svenda M, Djelic M, Zugic V, Gavrilovic T, et al. The training type influence on male elite athletes’ ventilatory function. BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine. 2017; 3: e000240.
 Degens H, Stasiulis A, Skurvydas A, Statkeviciene B, Venckunas T. Physiological comparison between non-athletes, endurance, power and team athletes. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2019; 119: 1377–1386.
 World Health Organization (WHO). Body mass index – BMI. 2020. Available at: http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/disease-prevention/nutrition/a-healthy-lifestyle/body-mass-index-bmi (Accessed: 2 June 2020).
 Graham BL, Steenbruggen I, Miller MR, Barjaktarevic IZ, Cooper BG, Hall GL, et al. Standardization of Spirometry 2019 Update. an Official American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society Technical Statement. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 2019; 200: e70–e88.
 American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society. ATS/ERS statement on respiratory muscle testing. American Journal of Respira-tory and Critical Care Medicine. 2002; 166: 518–624.
 Hackett DA, Johnson N, Chow C. Respiratory muscle adaptations: a comparison between bodybuilders and endurance athletes. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. 2013; 53: 139–145.
 Magnani KL, Cataneo AJM. Respiratory muscle strength in obese individuals and influence of upper-body fat distribution. Sao Paulo Medical Journal. 2007; 125: 215–219.
 Park C, Yi Y, Do JG, Lee Y, Yoon KJ. Relationship between skeletal muscle mass and lung function in Korean adults without clinically apparent lung disease. Medicine. 2018; 97: e12281.
 Bostancı Ö, Kabadayı M, Mayda MH, Yılmaz AK, Yılmaz C. The differential impact of several types of sports on pulmonary functions and respiratory muscle strength in boys aged 8–12. Isokinetics and Exercise Science. 2019; 27: 307–312.
 Carten C. The relationship between anthropometry and respiratory muscle function in land-and water-based athletes. Stellenbosch Uni-versity. Stellenbosch: Doctoral dissertation. 2007.
 Brown PI, Venables HK, Liu H, de-Witt JT, Brown MR, Faghy MA. Ventilatory muscle strength, diaphragm thickness and pulmonary function in world-class powerlifters. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2013; 113: 2849–2855.
 Campoi HG, Campoi EG, Lopes RF, Alves SA, Regueiro EMG, Regalo SCH, et al. Effects of physical activity on aerobic capacity, pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength of football athletes and sedentary individuals. Is there a correlation between these variables?Journal of Physical Education and Sport. 2019; 19: 2466–2471.
 Lazovic-Popovic B, Zlatkovic-Svenda M, Durmic T, Djelic M, Djord-jevic Saranovic S, Zugic V. Superior lung capacity in swimmers: some questions, more answers! Revista Portuguesa De Pneumologia. 2016; 22: 151–156.
 Lazovic B, Zlatkovic-Svenda M, Grbovic J, Milenković B, Sipetic-Grujicic S, Kopitovic I, et al. Comparison of lung diffusing capacity in young elite athletes and their counterparts. Pulmonology. 2018; 24: 219–223.
 Degens H, Maden-Wilkinson TM, Ireland A, Korhonen MT, Suomi-nen H, Heinonen A, et al. Relationship between ventilatory function and age in master athletes and a sedentary reference population. Age. 2012; 35: 1007–1015.
 Chatterjee P. Assessment and Comparative Analysis of Different Lung Capacities in Trained Athletes According to Somatotype. American Journal of Sports Science. 2019; 7: 72.
 Evans JA, Whitelaw WA. The assessment of maximal respiratory mouth pressures in adults. Respiratory Care. 2009; 54: 1348–1359.
 Strohl KP, Butler JP, Malhotra A. Mechanical properties of the upper airway. Comprehensive Physiology. 2012; 2: 1853–1872.
 Walsh J, Heazlewood IT, DeBeliso M, Climstein M. Comparison of obesity prevalence across 28 world masters games sports. International Scientific Journal of Kinesiology. 2018; 11: 30–36.
 Harris N, Rosenberg A, Jangda S, O’Brien K, Gallagher ML. Prevalence of obesity in International Special Olympic athletes as determined by body mass index. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 2003; 103: 235–237.
Vol., Issue , Invalid dateTable of contents
Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch) Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,200 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.
Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition aims to evaluate a journal’s value from multiple perspectives including the journal impact factor, descriptive data about a journal’s open access content as well as contributing authors, and provide readers a transparent and publisher-neutral data & statistics information about the journal.
Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) DOAJ is a unique and extensive index of diverse open access journals from around the world, driven by a growing community, committed to ensuring quality content is freely available online for everyone.
SCImago The SCImago Journal & Country Rank is a publicly available portal that includes the journals and country scientific indicators developed from the information contained in the Scopus® database (Elsevier B.V.)
Publication Forum - JUFO (Federation of Finnish Learned Societies) Publication Forum is a classification of publication channels created by the Finnish scientific community to support the quality assessment of academic research.
Scopus CiteScore 0.7 (2021) Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.
Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers Search for publication channels (journals, series and publishers) in the Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers to see if they are considered as scientific. (https://kanalregister.hkdir.no/publiseringskanaler/Forside).