Article Data

  • Views 595
  • Dowloads 138

Original Research

Open Access Special Issue

Evaluating process and outcomes of interventions for promoting sport participation among South Korean university students

  • Junhye Kwon1
  • Seiyeong Park1
  • Chiyoung Ahn1
  • Chung Gun Lee1,2,*,

1Department of Physical Education, College of Education, 71-1, Seoul National University, 08826 Seoul, Republic of Korea

2Institute of Sport Science, Seoul National University, 08826 Seoul, Republic of Korea

DOI: 10.31083/jomh.2021.137 Vol.18,Issue 4,April 2022 pp.1-7

Submitted: 16 September 2021 Accepted: 15 October 2021

Published: 30 April 2022

(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports and physical activities for men’s health)

*Corresponding Author(s): Chung Gun Lee E-mail:


Background: Based on previous research that identified salient beliefs with regard to sport participation among university students, four types of interventions (i.e., social dance class, social dance video, poster, and e-mail) were developed to promote sport participation among the target population. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the process and outcomes of interventions for promoting sport participation among university students.

Methods: The number of views registered on social dance videos and acknowledgements through e-mail were computed to evaluate reach and dose received. Three process evaluators also responded to a 22-item survey and expressed their conceptions on each intervention. Primary and secondary outcomes were analyzed using paired t-tests to assess changes in beliefs and sport participation pre-to post-intervention.

Results: Social dance video and poster interventions were relatively more effective in changing target behavior compared to the other two interventions. Following the interventions, students participating in sports less than 150 minutes per week at one-month follow-up were more likely to believe that participating in sports helps them build social relationships, less likely to perceive being tired is bad, and less likely to acknowledge that participating in sports takes too much time. Importantly, the mean duration of sport participation per week increased by 78.49 minutes among students who participated in sport less than 150 minutes per week.

Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that sport participation programs involving video and poster interventions may effectively promote involvement in sporting activities among university students. Future research should implement these interventions in a larger population.


Sport participation intervention; Process evaluation; Outcome evaluation; Program evaluation; Health promotion

Cite and Share

Junhye Kwon,Seiyeong Park,Chiyoung Ahn,Chung Gun Lee. Evaluating process and outcomes of interventions for promoting sport participation among South Korean university students. Journal of Men's Health. 2022. 18(4);1-7.


[1] Bassuk SS, Manson JE. Epidemiological evidence for the role of physical activity in reducing risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2005; 99: 1193–1204.

[2] Kohrt WM, Bloomfield SA, Little KD, Nelson ME, Yingling VR. Physical Activity and Bone Health. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2004; 36: 1985–1996.

[3] Warburton DER. Health benefits of physical activity: the evidence. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 2006; 174: 801–809.

[4] Leith LM. Foundations of Exercise and Mental Health. Fitness Information Technology: Morgantown, WV. 2010.

[5] Paluska SA, Schwenk TL. Physical Activity and Mental Health. Sports Medicine. 2000; 29: 167–180.

[6] Kim YS. Physical Activity and Mental Health. Hanyang Medical Reviews. 2014; 34: 60.

[7] American College Health Association. American College Health Association National College Health Assessment II 2010: Reference Group Data Report Spring 2010. Available at: (Accessed: 6 August 2021).

[8] Kim YB, Park CM, Kim HH, et al. Health behavior and utilization of university health clinics. Jkssche. 2010; 11: 79–91.

[9] U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Physical Activity and Health: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Con-trol and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 1996. Available at: (Accessed: 6 August 2021).

[10] American College of Sports Medicine. ACSM’s Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription. 6th edn. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: Philadelphia, PA. 2000.

[11] Dyer A, Kristjansson A, Mann M, Smith M, Allegrante J. Sport Participation and Academic Achievement: a Longitudinal Study. American Journal of Health Behavior. 2017; 41: 179–185.

[12] Ewing BT. The Labor Market Effects of High School Athletic Participation. Journal of Sports Economics. 2007; 8: 255–265.

[13] Kilpatrick M, Hebert E, Bartholomew J. College students’ motivation for physical activity: differentiating men’s and women’s motives for sport participation and exercise. Journal of American College Health. 2005; 54: 87–94.

[14] Plotnikoff RC, Costigan SA, Williams RL, Hutchesson MJ, Kennedy SG, Robards SL, et al. Effectiveness of interventions targeting physical activity, nutrition and healthy weight for university and college students: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 2015; 12: 45.

[15] Ferrara CM. The college experience: physical activity, nutrition, and implications for intervention and future research. Journal of Exercise Physiology Online. 2009; 12: 23–35.

[16] Maselli M, Ward PB, Gobbi E, Carraro A. Promoting Physical Activity among University Students: a Systematic Review of Controlled Trials. American Journal of Health Promotion. 2018; 32: 1602–1612.

[17] Calfas KJ, Sallis JF, Nichols JF, Sarkin JA, Johnson MF, Caparosa S, et al. Project GRAD: Two-Year Outcomes of a Randomized Controlled Physical Activity Intervention Among Young Adults. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2000; 18: 28–37.

[18] Hivert M, Langlois M, Bérard P, Cuerrier J, Carpentier AC. Prevention of weight gain in young adults through a seminar-based intervention program. International Journal of Obesity. 2007; 31: 1262–1269.

[19] Sallis JF, Calfas KJ, Nichols JF, Sarkin JA, Johnson MF, Caparosa S, et al. Evaluation of a university course to promote physical activity: project GRAD. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 1999; 70: 1–10.

[20] Saunders RP, Ward D, Felton GM, Dowda M, Pate RR. Examining the link between program implementation and behavior outcomes in the lifestyle education for activity program (LEAP). Evaluation and Program Planning. 2006; 29: 352–364.

[21] McGraw SA, Stone EJ, Osganian SK, Elder JP, Perry CL, Johnson CC, et al. Design of process evaluation within the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH). Health Education Quar-terly. 1994; 24: S5–S26.

[22] Saunders RP, Evans MH, Joshi P. Developing a process-evaluation plan for assessing health promotion program implementation: a how-to guide. Health Promotion Practice. 2005; 6: 134–147.

[23] Moore GF, Audrey S, Barker M, Bond L, Bonell C, Hardeman W, et al. Process evaluation of complex interventions: Medical Research Council guidance. British Medical Journal. 2015; 350: h1258.

[24] Baranowski T, Stables G. Process evaluations of the 5-a-day projects. Health Education Behavior. 2000; 27: 157–166.

[25] Salmon J, Ball K, Crawford D, Booth M, Telford A, Hume C, et al. Reducing sedentary behaviour and increasing physical activity among 10-year-old children: overview and process evaluation of the ‘Switch-Play’ intervention. Health Promotion International. 2005; 20: 7–17.

[26] Glanz K, Rimer BK, Viswanath K. Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice. 4th edn. Jossey-Bass: San Francisco. 2008.

[27] Steckler AB, Linnan L, Israel B. Process evaluation for public health interventions and research. Jossey-Bass: San Francisco, CA. 2002.

[28] Ng JK, Cuddihy T, Fung L. Does a required physical education program change leisure exercise behaviours in Hong Kong university students? The role of the environment explored. Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness. 2003; 1: 104–115.

[29] Bartholomew LK, Parcel GS, Kok G. Intervention mapping: a process for developing theory- and evidence-based health education programs. Health Education Behavior. 1998; 25: 545–563.

[30] Lee CG, Kwon J, Ahn C, et al. Identification and evaluation of beliefs about sport participation among South Korean university students. Journal of American College Health. 2021. (in press)

[31] Wimbush E, Watson J. An Evaluation Framework for Health Promotion: Theory, Quality and Effectiveness. Evaluation. 2000; 6: 301–321.

[32] Robbins LB, Pfeiffer KA, Wesolek SM, Lo Y. Process evaluation for a school-based physical activity intervention for 6th- and 7th-grade boys: reach, dose, and fidelity. Evaluation and Program Planning. 2014; 42: 21–31.

[33] Young DR, Steckler A, Cohen S, Pratt C, Felton G, Moe SG, et al. Process evaluation results from a school- and community-linked intervention: the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG). Health Education Research. 2008; 23: 976–986.

[34] World Health Organization (WHO). Physical Activity. 2020. Available at: (Accessed: 2 August 2021).

[35] Tuong W, Larsen ER, Armstrong AW. Videos to influence: a sys-tematic review of effectiveness of video-based education in modifying health behaviors. Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 2014; 37: 218–233.

[36] Cha EJ, Oh YS. Status and Tasks of Community Dance Viewed from Gender Perspective. Journal of Korean Association of Physical Education and Sport for Girls and Women. 2018; 32: 77–98.

[37] Chatzisarantis NLD, Hagger MS. Effects of a Brief Intervention Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior on Leisure-Time Physical Activity Participation. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2005; 27: 470–487.

[38] Ajzen I. The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. 1991; 50: 179–211.

[39] Carmody TP, Senner JW, Malinow MR, Matarazzo JD. Physical exercise rehabilitation: long-term dropout rate in cardiac patients. Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 1980; 3: 163–168.

[40] Dishman RK. The Problem of Exercise Adherence: Fighting Sloth in Nations with Market Economies. Quest. 2001; 53: 279–294.

[41] Franklin BA. Program factors that influence exercise adherence: practical adherence skills for the clinical staff. In Dishman RK (ed.) Exercise Adherence: Its Impact on Public Health (pp. 237–258). Human Kinetics: Champaign, Ill. 1988.

Abstracted / indexed in

Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch) Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,200 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.

Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition aims to evaluate a journal’s value from multiple perspectives including the journal impact factor, descriptive data about a journal’s open access content as well as contributing authors, and provide readers a transparent and publisher-neutral data & statistics information about the journal.

Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) DOAJ is a unique and extensive index of diverse open access journals from around the world, driven by a growing community, committed to ensuring quality content is freely available online for everyone.

SCImago The SCImago Journal & Country Rank is a publicly available portal that includes the journals and country scientific indicators developed from the information contained in the Scopus® database (Elsevier B.V.)

Publication Forum - JUFO (Federation of Finnish Learned Societies) Publication Forum is a classification of publication channels created by the Finnish scientific community to support the quality assessment of academic research.

Scopus CiteScore 0.7 (2021) Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.

Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers Search for publication channels (journals, series and publishers) in the Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers to see if they are considered as scientific. (

Submission Turnaround Time