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Original Research

Open Access

Prevalence, Co-Occurrence and Clustering of Lifestyle Risk Factors Among UK Men

  • Stephen Zwolinsky1
  • Gary Raine2
  • Steve Robertson3

1Centre for Active Lifestyles, Carnegie Faculty, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, UK. LS6 3QS

2Centre for Men’s Health, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, UK, LS2 8NU

3Centre for Men’s Health, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, UK, LS2 8NU

DOI: 10.31083/jomh.v12i2.24 Vol.12,Issue 2,September 2016 pp.15-24

Published: 05 September 2016

*Corresponding Author(s): Stephen Zwolinsky E-mail:


Objective: Men – more than women - engage in unhealthy lifestyle practices that place them at greater risk of developing non-communicable disease. This paper aims to explore the prevalence, co-occurrence and clustering of four core lifestyle risk factors and examine the socio demographic variation of their distribution, among men living in two central London boroughs. 

Method: A stratified street survey was undertaken with N=859 men. Prevalence odds ratios calculated risk factor clustering and a multinomial logistic regression model examined the socio-demographic variation. 

Results: Over 72% of men presented with combinations of lifestyle risk factors. Physical inactivity combined with a lack of fruit and vegetables was the most common combination. Co-occurrence was more prominent for unemployed, widowed, divorced/separated and white British men. Clustering was evident for adherence and non-adherence to UK health recommendations.

Conclusion: Men may benefit from targeted health interventions that address multiple – rather than single – health related behaviours.


men’s health, clustering, lifestyle risk reduction

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Stephen Zwolinsky,Gary Raine,Steve Robertson. Prevalence, Co-Occurrence and Clustering of Lifestyle Risk Factors Among UK Men. Journal of Men's Health. 2016. 12(2);15-24.


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