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Original Research

Open Access


  • Jinho Park1
  • Kun Ho Lee2,3

1Department of Counseling Health & Kinesiology, Texas A&M University–San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA

2Department of Prescription and Rehabilitation of Exercise, Dankook University, Cheonan, Republic of Korea

3Department of Icheon Training Center, Korea Paralympic Committee, Icheon, Republic of Korea

DOI: 10.31083/jomh.v16i3.285 Vol.16,Issue 3,July 2020 pp.98-108

Published: 16 July 2020

*Corresponding Author(s): Kun Ho Lee E-mail:

PDF (741.78 kB)


Background and objective

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are caused by factors such as aging, smoking, high body mass index (BMI), muscle loss, repetition of specific movements, and physical activity of intense muscle demands. MSDs cause pain, decrease the range of motion of joints, reduce proprioception sensory function, and reduce posture maintenance. This study aims to present basic data on prescription of exercise for musculo-skeletal movements in elderly people by evaluating the dynamic balance ability according to the presence of MSDs and the body regions affected by MSDs, and verifying the effects of MSD pain on the dynamic balance ability.

Material and methods

This study examined and identified differences according to the presence MSDs (Disorders, n = 51, age = 67.35 ± 2.62 years; Control, n = 15, age = 66.33 ± 3.10 years) and MSDs of body regions (shoulder, n = 14, age = 66.14 ± 1.95 years; lower back, n = 17, age = 67.82 ± 1.77 years; and knee, n = 20, age = 67.80 ± 2.36 years) in 66 elderly males. The causal relationship between MSD pain and dynamic balance ability was analyzed. The dynamic balance ability was measured using S3-Check (Multi-Functional Training, MFT S3; GmbH, Germany) where the subject takes off his shoes and positions on a 530-mm diameter round platform that moves in the axial direction (left-right or front-back) in the measuring range of +20° to –20° tilt angle.


The postural stability level was lower in the MSD group than in the group without MSD (left-right, P < 0.001; front-back, P < 0.001). The group with MSDs in the knee and the lower back showed lower results in the left-right and front-back stability index than the group without MSDs. Also, the knee and lower back MSD group showed lower scores in the front-back stability index than the shoulder MSD group. The level of sensory-motor function was lower in the MSD group than in the group without MSD (left-right, P < 0.001; front-back, P < 0.01). The MSD pain showed significantly positive standardized coefficients in the order of sensorimotor index (front-back, β = 0.404, P < 0.01; left-right, β = 0.397, P < 0.01) and stability index (front-back, β = 0.382, P < 0.01; left-right, β = 0.311, P < 0.01). As the degree of MSD pain increased, the postural stability level and sensory-motor function decreased.


We verified that the MSDs of body regions (knee and lower back) and pain level in the elderly are important factors in the decrease of dynamic balance ability.


dynamic balance ability; elderly; fall; musculoskeletal disorders; pain level; risk

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