Article Data

  • Views 3237
  • Dowloads 231

Original Research

Open Access


  • Ali Kerim Yılmaz1
  • Egemen Ermis¸1
  • Menderes Kabadayı1
  • Özgür Bostancı1

1Yas¸ar Dog˘u Sport Science Faculty, Ondokuz Mayıs University, Samsun, Turkey

DOI: 10.31083/jomh.v16i4.305 Vol.16,Issue 4,October 2020 pp.141-152

Published: 01 October 2020

*Corresponding Author(s): Ali Kerim Yılmaz E-mail:


Background and purpose

Muscle strength is one of the most physically important parameters during the competition for judokas. Studies have shown that for judokas, strength in especially the knee and shoulder muscles and the strength balance between right and left sides is very important in terms of both staying in balance and doing spe-cific techniques correctly. Our study aims to find out the correlations between isokinetic lower and upper extremity strength in elite judokas and to examine bilateral and contralateral strength ratios. 


This study is designed according to cross-experimental design with randomized repeated measurements. Fifteen male (mean values: age 19.40 ± 1.24 years, height 170.55 ± 9.44 cm, weight 78.47 ± 18.55 kg, and BMI 27.02 ± 5.82 kg/m2) elite judokas between the ages of 18 and 21 participated voluntarily in the study. Knee extension (EX) and flexion (FLX), shoulder internal rotation (IR) and external rotation (ER) isoki-netic strength measurements of the subjects were measured with concentric/concentric (Con/Con) con-tractions at 60o s-1 and 180o s-1 angular velocities. Ipsilateral hamstring/quadriceps (H/Q), internal rotation/external rotation (IR/ER), contralateral Q/Q, H/H, IR/IR, ER/ER ratios were calculated through lower and upper extremity isokinetic strength. Shapiro–Wilk, Levene, paired sample t-test, and Pearson correlation test were used in statistical analyses. 


In terms of the ipsilateral strength ratios on dominant (DS) and nondominant (NDS) in lower and upper extremities, a significant difference was found only at 60° s-1 angular velocity in only the lower extremity on DS (P < 0.05). In contralateral strength ratios, a statistically significant difference was found between Q/Q and H/H at 60° s-1 angular velocity (P < 0.05). When the correlations between lower and upper extremities were examined, no significant difference was found only between ER and FLX on DS at 60o s-1 angular velocity (P > 0.05). High correlations were found between all other parameters (P > 0.05). 


In conclusion, it was found that lateral asymmetric ratios may differ in elite judokas especially at low angu-lar velocities; however, this difference was not at a level to cause the risk of injury, DS and NDS showed similar strength in both lower and upper extremity, and there were high positive correlations between lower and upper extremity strength. 


isokinetic strength; judoka; knee; lateral asymmetry; shoulder

Cite and Share

Ali Kerim Yılmaz,Egemen Ermis¸,Menderes Kabadayı,Özgür Bostancı. CORRELATION OF UPPER AND LOWER EXTREMITIES ISOKINETIC STRENGTH IN ELITE MALE . Journal of Men's Health. 2020. 16(4);141-152.


1. Yoshitomi SK, Tanaka C, Duarte M, Lima F, Morya E, Hazime F. Respostas posturais à pertur-bação externa inesperada em judocas de diferentes níveis de habilidade. Revista Brasileira Medicina Esporte. 2006;12:159–63.

2. Perrot C, Deviterne D, Perrin P. Influence of train-ing on postural and motor control in a combative sport. Hum Mov Sci. 1998;35(3):37.

3. Perrin P, Deviterne D, Hugel F, Perrot C. Judo, better than dance, develops sensorimotor adapt-abilities involved in balance control. Gait Posture. 2002;15(2):187–94. http://dx.

4. Barbado D, Lopez-Valenciano A, Juan-Recio C, Montero-Carretero C, van Dieën JH, Vera-Garcia FJ. Trunk stability, trunk strength and sport performance level in judo. PLoS One. 2016;11(5):15–26. https://dx.

5. Franchini E, Del Vecchio FB, Matsushigue KA, Guilherme G, Artioli G. Physiological profiles of elite judo athletes. Sports Med. 2011;41(2); 147–66. 11538580-000000000-00000.$49.95/0

6. Ermiş E, Yilmaz AK, Kabadayi M, Bostanci Ö, Mayda MH. Bilateral and ipsilateral peak torque of quadriceps and hamstring muscles in elite judokas. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact. 2019;19(3):286.

7. Franchini E, Takito MY, Kiss MAPD, Strerkowicz S. Physical fitness and anthropometrical differences between elite and nonelite judo players. Biol Sport. 2005;22:315–28.

8. Thomas SG, Cox MH, Legal YM, Verde TJ, Smith HK. Physiological profiles of the Canadian national judo team. Can J Sport Sci. 1989;14:142–7.

9. Imamura RT, Iteya M, Hreljac A, Escamilla RF. A kinematic comparison of the judo throw Harai-goshi during competitive and noncompetitive conditions. J Sports Sci Med. 2007;6:15–22. https://www.ncbi.

10. Drid P, Casals C, Mekic A, Radjo I, Stojanovic M, Ostojic SM. Fitness and anthropometric pro-files of international vs. national judo medal-ists in half-heavyweight category. J Strength Cond Res. 2015;29(8):2115–21. https://journals. and_Anthropometric_Profiles_of.6.aspx

11. Ichinose Y, Kanehisa H, Ito M, Kawakami Y, Fukunaga T. Relationship between muscle fiber p ennation and force generation capability in Olympic athletes. Int J Sports Med. 1998;19:541–6.

12. Silva AC, Andrade MS. Avaliação isocinética em atletas paraolímpicos. Rev Bras Med Esporte. 2002;8(3):15–22.

13. Maly T, Zahalka F, Mala L. The bilateral strength and power asymmetries in untrained boys. Open Med. 2015;10:224–32.

14. Andrade M, De Lira C, Koffes F, Mascarin N, Benedito-Silva A, Da Silva A. Isokinetic ham-strings-to-quadriceps peak torque ratio: The influ-ence of sport modality, gender, and angular velocity. J Sports Sci. 2012;30:547–53. /02640414.2011.644249

15. Kotrljanovic A, Atanasov D, Veljovic D, Drid P. An isokinetic profile in senior female and male karate athletes national team level. Arch Budo Sci Martial Art Extreme Sport. 2016;12:203–10.

16. Berckmans K, Maenhout AG, Matthijs L, Pieters L, Castelein B, Cools AM. The isokinetic rotator cuff strength ratios in overhead athletes: Assessment and exercise effect. Phys Ther Sport. 2017;27: 65–75. ptsp.2017.03.001

17. Trajkovic N, Madic D, Maksimovic N, Milosevic Z, Obradovic B, Trivic T, Drapsin M, Drid P. Knee and shoulder strength ratios in female karate athletes: Age-related differences. Med Sport. 2019;72(2): 191–9.

18. Keeley DW, Plummer HA, Oliver GD. Predicting asymmetrical lower extremity strength deficits in college-aged men and women using common horizontal and vertical power field tests: A possi-ble screening mechanism. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25:1632–7. lower_extremity_strength.21.aspx. 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181ddf690.

19. Drapšin M, Trajković N, Atanasov D, Radanović D, Imbronjev M, Roklicer R, Drid P. Isokinetic per-formance of shoulder external and internal rota-tors in judo and karate female elite athletes. Age (yrs). 2019;21(2):21–3. https://www.sciencedirect. com/science/article/pii/S0765159718302880.

20. Ghrairi M, Hammouda O, Malliaropoulos N. Muscular strength profile in Tunisian male national judo team. Muscles Ligaments Tendons J. 2014;4(2):149.

21. Perrin DH. Isokinetic exercise ans assessment. Human Kinetics Publishers: Champain; 1993.

22. Kellis E, Baltzopoulos V. Isokinetic eccentric exercise.Sports Med. 1995;19:202–22.

23. Osternig LR, Hamill J, Sawhill JA, Bates BT. Influence of torque and limb speed on power pro-duction in isokinetic exercise. Am J Phys Med. 1983;62:163–71. Limb_Speed_on_Power.1.aspx

24. Elliot J. Assessing muscle strenght isokinetically. J Am Med Assoc. 1978;240:2408–10.

25. Heitkamp HC, Mayer F, Fleck M, Horstmann T. Gain in thigh muscle strength after balance train-ing in male and female judokas. Isokinet Exerc Sci. 2002;10(4):199–202.

26. Alter MJ. Science of stretching. Human Kinetics Pub: Champaign, IL; 1988.

27. Stradijot F, Pittorru GM, Pinna M. The functional evaluation of lower limb symmetry in a group of young elite judo and wrestling athletes. Isokinet Exerc Sci. 2012;20(1):13–16. https://content.iospress. com/articles/isokinetics-and-exercise-science/ies00434

28. Ebersole KT, O’Connor KM, Wier AP. Mechanomyographic and electromyographic responses to repeated concentric muscle actions of the quadriceps femoris. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2006;16(2):149–57. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.jelekin.2005.05.005.

29. Radjo I, Mekic A, Drapsin M, Trivic T, Kajmovic H, Drid P. Isokinetic strength profile of shoulder rota-tors and thigh muscle torques in elite judokas and soccer players. Technıcs Technol Educ Manage. 2011;6(3):631–5.

30. Ruivo R, Pazarat-Correia P, Carita AI. Elbow and shoulder muscles strength profile in judo athletes. Isokinet Exerc Sci. 2012;20:41–5. https://content.

31. Drapšin M, Trajković N, Atanasov D, Radanović D, Imbronjev M, Roklicer R, Drid P. Isokinetic per-formance of shoulder external and internal rota-tors in judo and karate female elite athletes. Age. 2019;21(2.51):21–3. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.scispo.2018.10.005

32. Drid P, Drapsin M, Trivic T, Lukac D, Obadov S, Milosevic Z. Asymmetry of muscle strength in elite athletes. Biomed Hum Kinet. 2009; 1:3–5.

33. Berckmans K, Maenhout AG, Matthijs L, Pieters L, Castelein B, Cools AM. The isokinetic rotator cuff strength ratios in overhead athletes: Assessment and exercise effect. Phys Ther Sport. 2017;27:65–75. 2017.03.001

34. Myer GD, Ford KR, Foss KDB, Liu C, Nick TG, Hewett TE. The relationship of hamstrings and quadriceps strength to anterior cruciate ligament injury in female athletes. Clin J Sport Med. 2009;19:3–8. Statistics_for_Sports.2.aspx.

35. Dyk N, Bahr R, Whiteley R, Tol JL, Kumar BD, Hamilton B, Witvrouw E. Hamstring and quadriceps isokinetic strength deficits are weak risk factors for hamstring strain injuries: A 4-year cohort study. Am J Sports Med. 2016;44(7):1789–95. https://journals.

36. Steffen K, Nilstad A, Kristianslund EK, Myklebust G, Bahr R, Krosshaug T. Association between lower extremity muscle strength and noncontact ACL inju-ries. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016;48(11):2082–9.

37. Pontaga I, Zidens J. Shoulder rotator muscle dynamometry characteristics: Side asymmetry and correlations with ball-throwing speed in ado-lescent handball players. J Hum Kinet. 2014;42: 41–50.

38. Marcondes FB, Castropil W, Schor B, Miana A, Vasconcelos R, Etchebehere M. Shoulder isoki-netic performance in healthy professional judo athletes: Normative data. Acta Ortopedica Brasileira. 2019;27(6):308–12. https://www.scielo. br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-78522019000600308.

39. Barbado D, Lopez-Valenciano A, Juan-Recio C, Montero-Carretero C, van Dieën JH, Vera-Garcia FJ. Trunk stability, trunk strength and sport perfor-mance level in judo. PLoS One.2016;11(5):e0156267.

Abstracted / indexed in

Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch) Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,200 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.

Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition aims to evaluate a journal’s value from multiple perspectives including the journal impact factor, descriptive data about a journal’s open access content as well as contributing authors, and provide readers a transparent and publisher-neutral data & statistics information about the journal.

Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) DOAJ is a unique and extensive index of diverse open access journals from around the world, driven by a growing community, committed to ensuring quality content is freely available online for everyone.

SCImago The SCImago Journal & Country Rank is a publicly available portal that includes the journals and country scientific indicators developed from the information contained in the Scopus® database (Elsevier B.V.)

Publication Forum - JUFO (Federation of Finnish Learned Societies) Publication Forum is a classification of publication channels created by the Finnish scientific community to support the quality assessment of academic research.

Scopus: CiteScore 0.7 (2022) Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.

Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers Search for publication channels (journals, series and publishers) in the Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers to see if they are considered as scientific. (

Submission Turnaround Time