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Original Research

Open Access Special Issue

The influence of intermittent apnea on aortic hemodynamics in healthy young men

  • Tomoko Imai1
  • Tsubasa Tomoto2,3
  • Shigehiko Ogoh4
  • Jun Sugawara5,*,

1Research Institute for Industrial Technology Aichi Institute of Technology, Toyota, 470-0392 Aichi, Japan

2Institute for Exercise and Environmental Medicine, Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital Dallas, Dallas, TX 75231, USA

3Department of Neurology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA

4Department of Biomedical Engineering, Toyo University, Kawagoe-Shi, 350-8585 Saitama, Japan

5Human Informatics and Interaction Research Institute National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 305-8566 Ibaraki, Japan

DOI: 10.31083/j.jomh1803076 Vol.18,Issue 3,March 2022 pp.1-7

Submitted: 01 September 2021 Accepted: 19 November 2021

Published: 31 March 2022

(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lifestyle modifications for men with hypertension)

*Corresponding Author(s): Jun Sugawara E-mail:


Background: Sleep apnea is known as a high-risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD); However, the influence of apnea on aor-tic blood pressure and augmentation index (AIx), which cardiac load and independent risks for a future CVD event, remains unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the influence of intermittent normoxic apnea on aortic arterial hemodynamics in healthy men. Methods: Sixteen healthy young men (23 ± 1.6 years mean ± SD) underwent the repetitive 20-s apnea with a 40 s interval for 20 min. During the interval, each subject maintained a breath pace at 15 breaths/min. Central hemodynamics were evaluated every 5 min by pulse wave analysis from peripheral (radial) arterial pressure waveforms via general transfer function method and compared among three phases defined as “breath” (for 20 s before apnea), “apnea”, and “rebreathe” (for 20 s after apnea). The baseline values were calculated from the first breathing cycle and compared with each breathing phase every 5 min. Results: Aortic systolic blood pressure and AIx were significantly higher at rebreathe phase than the other phases. Likewise, heart rate and double product (aortic systolic blood pressure × heart rate) were significantly higher in rebreathe phase than the other phases. Conclusions: These results suggest that cardiac load is increased by intermittent normoxic apnea, especially during the rebreathing phase.


Intermittent apnea; Aortic pressure; Augmentation index

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Tomoko Imai,Tsubasa Tomoto,Shigehiko Ogoh,Jun Sugawara. The influence of intermittent apnea on aortic hemodynamics in healthy young men. Journal of Men's Health. 2022. 18(3);1-7.


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